Science, General Stuff

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1276

Post by RTH10260 » Fri Apr 26, 2019 5:28 pm

Goats Prefer Happy Human Faces
Like dogs and horses, goats can discern happy from angry facial expressions. But whether these animals possess empathy remains unclear.
Dec 1, 2018
JEF AKST

Alan McElligott, an animal behavior researcher at the University of Roehampton in the UK, continues to be impressed by goats. Since he started studying the charismatic ungulates a decade ago, he’s found that mothers remember the calls of their kids several months after they’ve been separated, and that goats can solve a two-step puzzle box akin to those typically used in primate research—and remember how to do it a year later.

Now his team has found that goats at the Buttercups Sanctuary in Kent, UK, can distinguish between happy and angry human expressions. “Given some of the other things that we’ve found out about goats, I guess we shouldn’t really be that surprised,” says McElligott, who’s hoping to improve welfare guidelines for the animals by revealing their smart and social nature.


https://www.the-scientist.com/notebook/ ... aces-65081

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1277

Post by Notorial Dissent » Fri Apr 26, 2019 6:09 pm

Goats are very social and are generally very intelligent. They are herd animals and don't like being by themselves, which is why they will develop intense bonds with humans since they consider them part of the herd.
The fact that you sincerely and wholeheartedly believe that the “Law of Gravity” is unconstitutional and a violation of your sovereign rights, does not absolve you of adherence to it.

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1278

Post by RTH10260 » Tue Apr 30, 2019 6:16 pm

Scientists pull speech directly from the brain
Devin Coldewey@techcrunch

In a feat that could eventually unlock the possibility of speech for people with severe medical conditions, scientists have successfully recreated the speech of healthy subjects by tapping directly into their brains. The technology is a long, long way from practical application but the science is real and the promise is there.

Edward Chang, neurosurgeon at UC San Francisco and co-author of the paper published today in Nature, explained the impact of the team’s work in a press release: “For the first time, this study demonstrates that we can generate entire spoken sentences based on an individual’s brain activity. This is an exhilarating proof of principle that with technology that is already within reach, we should be able to build a device that is clinically viable in patients with speech loss.”

To be perfectly clear, this isn’t some magic machine that you sit in and its translates your thoughts into speech. It’s a complex and invasive process that decodes not exactly what the subject is thinking but what they were actually speaking.


https://techcrunch.com/2019/04/24/scien ... the-brain/

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1279

Post by Tiredretiredlawyer » Mon May 06, 2019 10:00 am

https://www.livescience.com/65406-histo ... anics.html
Last-Ditch Hack Led to the Invention of Quantum Mechanics

Let's say you've got some random object in front of you — how about a nice hot cup of coffee? You can see the cup and the coffee, of course, because light from your lamp is reflecting off it and into your eyeballs. And you can feel its warmth as you grab the mug. But hold your hand just beside the cup. You still feel a bit of warmth, don't you?

That's because the cup of coffee is indeed making its own kind of light, but it's not the visible kind. It's emitting light with a wavelength longer than the deepest red you could possibly imagine. What's below the red? Infrared. It may not be visible, but it's still a kind of light.

But your coffee cools while sitting on your desk, and eventually, you won't be able to feel the radiating warmth. Why did the hot cup of coffee emit radiation that you could feel, but the cold cup of coffee didn't? Who decides what kind of radiation is emitted when?

This was a huge, burning question in the minds of 19th-century physicists, who had been studying a particular kind of radiation called blackbody radiation. The name comes from the experimental device used to investigate this phenomenon: a box coated in black on the interior, with a teensy-tiny pinhole for viewing.
You must read to find the answer. This author has a youtube channel and blogs. Very interesting. http://www.pmsutter.com/shows/askaspaceman
A 19th Amendment Centennial Moment: Helen Keller supported women’s suffrage and was a co-founder of the American Civil Liberties Union.

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1280

Post by RTH10260 » Thu May 09, 2019 11:35 pm

Robots on the narrow path to doom?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=popvnHUu3uU

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1281

Post by Whatever4 » Sat May 11, 2019 1:57 am

RTH10260 wrote:
Thu May 09, 2019 11:35 pm
Robots on the narrow path to doom?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=popvnHUu3uU
Robot is way better at not falling than W2 is.
"[Moderate] doesn't mean you don't have views. It just means your views aren't predictable ideologically one way or the other, and you're trying to follow the facts where they lead and reach your own conclusions."
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1282

Post by RTH10260 » Sat May 11, 2019 8:12 am

Whatever4 wrote:
Sat May 11, 2019 1:57 am
RTH10260 wrote:
Thu May 09, 2019 11:35 pm
Robots on the narrow path to doom?

https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=popvnHUu3uU
Robot is way better at not falling than W2 is.
:twisted: just wait until the airline industry gets their hands on it and takes corners by making the balancing sensors optional for cost savings :think:

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1283

Post by RTH10260 » Fri May 17, 2019 1:12 pm

for the math geeks
Pentagon Tiling Proof Solves Century-Old Math Problem
A French mathematician has completed the classification of all convex pentagons, and therefore all convex polygons, that tile the plane.

Olena Shmahalo/Quanta Magazine

One of the oldest problems in geometry asks which shapes tile the plane, locking together with copies of themselves to cover a flat area in an endless pattern called a tessellation. M.C. Escher’s drawings of tessellating lizards and other creatures illustrate that an unlimited variety of shapes can do this.

The inventorying reduces to a finite, though still formidable, task when mathematicians consider only convex polygons: simple, flat-edged shapes like triangles and rectangles whose angles all bend in the same direction. Now, a new proof by Michaël Rao, a 37-year-old mathematician at CNRS (France’s national center for scientific research) and the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, finally completes the classification of convex polygons that tile the plane by conquering the last holdouts: pentagons, which have resisted sorting for 99 years.

Try placing regular pentagons — those with equal angles and sides — edge to edge and gaps soon form; they do not tile. The ancient Greeks proved that the only regular polygons that tile are triangles, quadrilaterals and hexagons (as now seen on many a bathroom floor).

But squash and stretch a pentagon into an irregular shape and tilings become possible. In his 1918 doctoral thesis, the German mathematician Karl Reinhardt identified five types of irregular convex pentagons that tile the plane: They were families defined by common rules, such as “side a equals side b,” “c equals d,” and “angles A and C both equal 90 degrees.”


https://www.quantamagazine.org/pentagon ... -20170711/

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1284

Post by Mr. Gneiss » Fri May 17, 2019 1:22 pm

I need more caffeine. I read the last post as "U.S. Military Tiling Proof Solves Century-Old Math Problem."

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1285

Post by Chilidog » Fri May 17, 2019 4:15 pm

I saw it as

"US Military solves tiling problem in the Pentagon."

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1286

Post by RTH10260 » Fri May 17, 2019 5:23 pm

Chilidog wrote:
Fri May 17, 2019 4:15 pm
I saw it as

"US Military solves tiling problem in the Pentagon."
Better invest in new flooring than have the money pinched for The Wall :lol:

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1287

Post by RTH10260 » Fri May 17, 2019 9:29 pm

“Bomb Carbon” Has Been Found in Deep-Ocean Creatures
The detection of this radioactive relic of nuclear weapons tests in a remote environment shows humanity’s far-reaching environmental impact

By Adam Levy on May 15, 2019

The Mariana Trench, in the western Pacific Ocean between Japan and Papua New Guinea, plunges nearly seven miles below the surface at its deepest point. It is one of the most inaccessible environments on Earth, but it has not escaped the impact of humanity’s violence.

A group of scientists have now found radioactive carbon-14—at levels high enough to indicate it originated from the detonation of nuclear bombs—in the flesh of shrimplike crustaceans living in the trench. “Typically, we say the trenches are far away from us; they’re very deep and they’re pristine. But actually, they’re not,” says earth scientist Jiasong Fang of Shanghai Ocean University, who worked on the new study. “Everything can get into the trenches.”


https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... creatures/

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1288

Post by RTH10260 » Tue Jun 04, 2019 11:42 am

How to hide from the AI surveillance state with a color printout
Adversarial machine learning fools image recognition software.
AI-powered video technology is becoming ubiquitous, tracking our faces and bodies through stores, offices, and public spaces. In some countries the technology constitutes a powerful new layer of policing and government surveillance.


Fortunately, as some researchers from the Belgian university KU Leuven have just shown, you can often hide from an AI video system with the aid of a simple color printout.

Who said that? The researchers showed that the image they designed can hide a whole person from an AI-powered computer-vision system. They demonstrated it on a popular open-source object recognition system called YoLo(v2).

Hide and seek: The trick could conceivably let crooks hide from security cameras, or offer dissidents a way to dodge government scrutiny. “What our work proves is that it is possible to bypass camera surveillance systems using adversarial patches,” says Wiebe Van Ranst, one of the authors.

Get lost: Van Ranst says it shouldn’t be too hard to adapt the approach to off-the-shelf video surveillance systems. “At the moment we also need to know which detector is in use. What we’d like to do in the future is generate a patch that works on multiple detectors at the same time,” he told MIT Technology Review. “If this works, chances are high that the patch will also work on the detector that is in use in the surveillance system.”


more at the link https://www.technologyreview.com/f/6134 ... -printout/

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1289

Post by RTH10260 » Tue Jun 11, 2019 10:15 pm

Don't shout WOLF!
A Giant Severed Wolf Head From 40,000 Years Ago Has Been Unearthed in Siberia
PETER DOCKRILL 11 JUN 2019

A huge wolf head preserved since the last Ice Age has been found in incredible condition in Siberia, an estimated 40,000 years since being entombed in frozen wilderness.

The giant head, discovered by a local man in 2018 along the shores of the Tirekhtyakh River in the Russian Republic of Sakha (aka Yakutia), measures a whole 40 centimetres in length (about 16 inches), making it unlike any existing wolf specimen scientists have studied from so long ago.

"This is a unique discovery of the first ever remains of a fully grown Pleistocene wolf with its tissue preserved," palaeontologist Albert Protopopov from the Republic of Sakha Academy of Sciences told The Siberian Times.

"We will be comparing it to modern-day wolves to understand how the species has evolved and to reconstruct its appearance."

The find, which follows the discovery of a number of ancient cave lion cubs in the same region in 2015 and 2017, represents another amazingly well-preserved animal recovered from Yakutia: its fur, fangs, skin tissue, and even brain tissue are still seemingly intact.


https://www.sciencealert.com/a-giant-se ... in-siberia

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1290

Post by RTH10260 » Thu Jul 11, 2019 3:12 pm

Modern Humans Failed in Early Attempt to Migrate Out of Africa, Old Skull Shows
By Laura Geggel, Associate Editor | July 10, 2019 02:55pm ET

A prehistoric, broken skull is revealing the secrets of ancient humans, divulging that early modern humans left Africa much earlier than previously thought, a new study finds.

The skull, found in Eurasia and dating back 210,000 years, is the oldest modern human bone that anthropologists have discovered outside Africa, the researchers said.

This skull, however, had an unusual neighbor: a 170,000-year-old, possibly Neanderthal skull that was found resting next to it, in a cave in southern Greece. Given that the Neanderthal skull is a solid 40,000 years younger than the modern human skull, it appears that this particular human's early dispersal out of Africa failed. There are no living descendants of this enigmatic human alive today, and this person's group was replaced by Neanderthals, who later lived in that very same cave, the researchers said.


https://www.livescience.com/65906-oldes ... rasia.html
also too:
LiveScience wrote:We know from the genetic evidence that all humans that are alive today outside of Africa can trace their ancestry to the major dispersal out of Africa that happened between 70[,000] and 50,000 years before present," study lead researcher Katerina Harvati, a professor of paleoanthropology at the University of Tübingen in Germany, told reporters at a news conference.

Other earlier modern-human dispersals out of Africa have been documented at sites in Israel, including one based on the discovery of a 194,000- to 177,000-year-old modern human jaw from Misliya Cave and others tied to early human fossils dated to about 130,000 to 90,000 years ago at the Skhul and Qafzeh caves. But "we think that these early migrants did not actually contribute to modern humans living outside of Africa today, but rather died out and were probably locally replaced by Neanderthals," Harvati said. "We hypothesize this is a similar situation with the Apidima 1 [the newly dated modern human skull] population."

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1291

Post by Foggy » Thu Jul 11, 2019 6:30 pm

between 70[,000] and 50,000 years...
Or 4 times all of recorded history ...
They say that on his deathbed, Voltaire, asked to renounce the devil, said, "This is no time to be making new enemies."

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1292

Post by RTH10260 » Thu Jul 11, 2019 6:48 pm

Foggy wrote:
Thu Jul 11, 2019 6:30 pm
between 70[,000] and 50,000 years...
Or 4 times all of recorded history ...
I know, I know, it's fake news for you US citizens: 6000 years since Adam and (St)Eve :cantlook:

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1293

Post by Sluffy1 » Thu Jul 11, 2019 8:55 pm

Foggy wrote:
Thu Jul 11, 2019 6:30 pm
between 70[,000] and 50,000 years...
Or 4 times all of recorded history ...
But how many times in unrecorded history ... I'd guess way more than they think

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1294

Post by RTH10260 » Mon Jul 15, 2019 2:12 pm

Galileo sat-nav system still without service
By Jonathan Amos BBC Science Correspondent

Europe's satellite-navigation system, Galileo, remains offline.

The network suffered an outage on Friday due to what has been described as a "technical incident related to its ground infrastructure".

Engineers worked around the clock over the weekend but there is no update yet on when the service will resume.

The problem means all receivers, such as the latest smartphone models, will not be picking up any useable timing or positional information.

These devices will be relying instead on the data coming from the American Global Positioning System (GPS).

And depending on the sat-nav chip they have installed, cell phones and other devices might also be making connections with the Russian (Glonass) and Chinese (Beidou) networks.

Galileo is still in a roll-out, or pilot phase, meaning it would not yet be expected to lead critical applications.

"People should remember that we are still in the 'initial services' phase; we're not in full operation yet," a spokesperson for the European GNSS Agency (GSA) told BBC News.


https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-48985399

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1295

Post by RTH10260 » Fri Aug 02, 2019 4:44 pm

Your coffee cools along the same physical principles like space did and does after the Big Bang
The Universal Law That Aims Time’s Arrow
A new look at a ubiquitous phenomenon has uncovered unexpected fractal behavior that could give us clues about the early universe and the arrow of time.


https://www.quantamagazine.org/the-univ ... -20190801/

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1296

Post by RTH10260 » Fri Aug 02, 2019 5:02 pm

Mind the Staph: London Is Crawling with Antibiotic-Resistant Microbes
The bacteria are not a major threat, but they could transfer their resistance to more dangerous pathogens

By Karen Weintraub on August 1, 2019

London is teeming with bacteria—some of which have developed resistance to antibiotics. These microbes are mostly harmless, but if they do cause an infection, it can be hard to treat. And there is a chance that they could transfer their resistance to more dangerous strains, experts warn.

In a new study, researchers in England and their colleagues found that frequently touched surfaces—such as elevator buttons, ATMs and bathroom-door handles—can be reservoirs of drug-resistant staphylococcus, or staph, bacteria.

The researchers collected 600 samples from locations throughout East and West London such as hospitals, public washrooms and ticket machines, finding 11 species of staphylococci. Nearly half of the samples—including 57 percent in East London and about 41 percent in less crowded West London—contained bacteria resistant to two or more frontline antibiotics. Just under half of the staph found in hospital public areas was drug resistant, compared with 41 percent in community settings, the team reported Thursday in Scientific Reports.


https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... -microbes/

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1297

Post by RTH10260 » Fri Aug 30, 2019 1:08 pm

Massive Study Finds No Single Genetic Cause of Same-Sex Sexual Behavior
Analysis of half a million people suggests genetics may have a limited contribution to sexual orientation

By Sara Reardon on August 29, 2019

Few aspects of human biology are as complex—or politically fraught—as sexual orientation. A clear genetic link would suggest that gay people are “born this way,” as opposed to having made a lifestyle choice. Yet some fear that such a finding could be misused “cure” homosexuality, and most research teams have shied away from tackling the topic.

Now, a new study claims to dispel the notion that a single gene or handful of genes make a person prone to same-sex behavior. The analysis, which examined the genomes of nearly half a million men and women, found that although genetics are certainly involved in who people choose to have sex with, there are no specific genetic predictors. Yet some researchers question whether the analysis, which looked at genes associated with sexual activity rather than attraction, can draw any real conclusions about sexual orientation.

“The message should remain the same that this is a complex behavior that genetics definitely plays a part in,” said study co-author Fah Sathirapongsasuti, a computational biologist at genetic testing company 23andMe in Mountain View, Calif., during a press conference. The handful of genetic studies conducted in the past few decades have looked at only a few hundred individuals at most—and almost exclusively men. Other studies have linked sexual orientation with environmental factors such as hormone exposure before birth and having older brothers.


https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... -behavior/

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1298

Post by RTH10260 » Wed Sep 18, 2019 11:11 pm

New Proof Solves 80-Year-Old Irrational Number Problem
Mathematicians have finally proved a conjecture on approximating numbers with fractions

By Leila Sloman on September 16, 2019

Most people rarely deal with irrational numbers—it would be, well, irrational, as they run on forever, and representing them accurately requires an infinite amount of space. But irrational constants such as π and √2—numbers that cannot be reduced to a simple fraction—frequently crop up in science and engineering. These unwieldy numbers have plagued mathematicians since the ancient Greeks; indeed, legend has it that Hippasus was drowned for suggesting irrationals existed. Now, though, a nearly 80-year-old quandary about how well they can be approximated has been solved.


https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... r-problem/

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1299

Post by RTH10260 » Thu Sep 19, 2019 7:37 am

Who of you rose from the primordial sludge, please raise your hands...
Origin-of-Life Study Points to Chemical Chimeras, Not RNA
Origin-of-life researchers have usually studied the potential of pure starting materials, but messy chemical composites may kick-start life more effectively.

Life would have almost certainly had to arise within watery solutions of diverse molecules. Surprisingly, the complexity of those mixtures might have been more of a help than a hindrance in producing the first molecules of pure RNA and DNA.

Scientists studying how life arose from the primordial soup have been too eager to clean up the clutter.

Four billion years ago, the prebiotic Earth was a messy place, a chaotic mélange of diverse starting materials. Even so, certain key molecules still somehow managed to emerge from that chemical mayhem — RNA, DNA and proteins among them. But in the quest to understand how that happened, according to Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, a chemist at the Scripps Research Institute in California, researchers have been so myopic in their focus on reactions that generate molecules relevant to the planet’s current inhabitants that they’ve overlooked other possibilities.

“They are trying to impose biology today on prebiotic chemistry,” he said. “But trying to make the final product right from the raw material — it misleads us.”

“We forget the mixture,” he added — and with it, the more circuitous chemical routes that could have potentially led to the same biological outcome, the intermediate stages on the path to life that have since faded without a trace.


https://www.quantamagazine.org/origin-o ... -20190916/

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1300

Post by Tiredretiredlawyer » Thu Sep 19, 2019 10:30 am

:mememe:

Affectionately known as Prime Sludgies.
A 19th Amendment Centennial Moment: Helen Keller supported women’s suffrage and was a co-founder of the American Civil Liberties Union.

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