Oceans & Tides

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Fortinbras
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Re: Oceans & Tides

#26

Post by Fortinbras » Fri Jul 05, 2019 4:39 pm

Maybe someone can explain it to me (in really simple language): I live in Delaware and the local TV has an extensive weather report that includes the high tides of about two dozen fishing places on the state's Atlantic and Chesapeake coastlines. Places on the same shoreline and only about 20 miles apart have high tide times that are separated by two or more hours. It's not even in sequence from north to south, but lots of alternating between early and late. I had thought that the high tide would affect the whole of the Delaware coastline at one and the same time all the way up and down, instead it looks like a very uneven train schedule. Why this phenomenon?

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Sam the Centipede
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Re: Oceans & Tides

#27

Post by Sam the Centipede » Fri Jul 05, 2019 7:37 pm

I don't know about the tided around Delaware but I di know that tides are more complex than the simple tale that high school science books tell about gravity and the sun and the moon. Those gravity cycles give the water its initial momentum but then it sloshes around in great lumps, affected by the shapes of bays, channels, basins, varying seabed levels etc., sometimes with weird resonance and interaction effects. So some places have three high tides each day, for example.

I once saw a pre-digital mechanical tide calculator, a contraption of wires, pulleyx, dials and a pen plotter. It had about 17 different configurable cycles built into it, so the output graph was a summaton of all those cycles of various periods. And that complexity was required in order to be able to produce tide tables for mariners anywhere in the world.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#28

Post by Addie » Sat Jul 06, 2019 2:23 pm

Associated Press
Intensifying downpours threatening America’s biggest estuary

CONOWINGO, Md. (AP) — When the Conowingo Dam opened to fanfare nearly a century ago, the massive wall of concrete and steel began its job harnessing water power in northern Maryland. It also quietly provided a side benefit: trapping sediment and silt before it could flow miles downstream and pollute the Chesapeake Bay, the nation’s largest estuary.

The old hydroelectric dam spanning the lower Susquehanna River is still ably producing power, but its days of effectively trapping sediment in a 14-mile (22.5-kilometer) long reservoir behind its walls are over. Behind the 94-foot (29-meter) high barrier lies a massive inventory of coal-black muck — some 200 million tons (181 million metric tons) of pollutants picked up over decades from farmlands, industrial zones and towns.

How big a threat this sediment stockpile poses to the Chesapeake Bay or whether anything can even be done about it depends on who you talk to. With Maryland pushing to curb pollution in dam discharges, the issue has become a political football as Conowingo’s operator seeks to renew its federal license to operate the dam for 46 more years after its old license expired.

And as negotiations drag on, the lack of agreement about curbing runoff pollutants following the wettest year on record imperils hard-won gains in restoring the Chesapeake Bay.

The iconic estuary famed for its blue crabs and oysters has been gradually rebounding under a federal cleanup program launched in 1983 that put an end to unbridled pollution. But the 200-mile (325-kilometer) long bay is increasingly being ravaged by runoff-triggering downpours, including record-setting rainfall in 2018 and this year’s soggy spring.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#29

Post by RTH10260 » Sat Jul 06, 2019 7:04 pm

Suggestion: build a drainage channel - possibly underwater pipeline - from the dam out into open sea, then start washing out the sediments that ought to have gone that way decades ago. Of course may mess up the oceans ecological system and wash up on the coastline unexpected.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#30

Post by Addie » Sun Jul 07, 2019 8:57 pm

CNN
All 21 of Mississippi's beaches are closed because of toxic algae ...

HABs occur when "colonies of algae -- simple plants that live in the sea and freshwater -- grow out of control and produce toxic or harmful effects on people" or wildlife, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) says.

The toxic algae can cause rashes, stomach cramps, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting, the state agency warned.

Though the state says people can still use the sand portion of the beaches, they should avoid water contact or consumption of anything from the waters "until further notice."

The HAB was at least partly caused by the opening of the Bonnet Carre spillway in Louisiana, which has triggered "excessive" freshwater to the coastline, the Jackson Clarion Ledger reported.

Blooms can be caused by a variety of factors, including increases in nutrient levels from fertilizer run-off, low water flows, changes in water temperature or changes in ocean currents, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says.

HABs aren't rare. In fact, every US coastal and Great Lakes state experiences them, the NOAA says. However, they are popping up with increasing frequency due to climate change and increasing nutrient pollution, according to the NOAA.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#31

Post by Addie » Tue Jul 09, 2019 8:12 pm

The Guardian
'Inside, the fish are black': the pollution tainting Tunisian beaches

Across the Gulf of Tunis, domestic and industrial waste is pouring into the sea, rendering stretches of coastline ‘unusable’ ...


It isn’t just the waters off La Goulette that are causing concern. The entire Gulf of Tunis is drawing activists’ ire, as domestic and industrial waste from the capital’s 600,000 plus residents, in addition to that flowing from the ports and the industrial estates that line the Gulf, makes its way into the waters outside Tunis, impacting fish populations and presenting a clear hazard to human health.

Tunisia’s pollution issues aren’t new. Its heavy industries have been impacting water quality for years. However, since the revolution of 2011, conversation over the environmental impact of its industrial legacy has at least become possible, even if the kind of reversals activists are calling for remain some way off.

Officially around a quarter of Tunisia’s waste water is recycled, intended, among other things, to irrigate the country’s farmlands. The rest (around 247m cubic metres a year), is expelled from the country’s treatment plants directly into the sea and inland waterways. According to environmental regulations, industrial waste water should initially be treated at source, before being transferred for further treatment. However, campaigners question how rigorously this is being enforced. ...

Across Tunisia, industrial and domestic waste water is channelled from broad areas to large treatment plants. Within the Gulf, the outcomes are clear. “We tested both input and output flows between 2016 and 2017 and the results were consistent,” Garbouj, an environmental engineer, says. “We found increased levels of nitrates, manganese particles, phosphate plus faecal coliforms and streptococci – both present within human waste – among other matters. All of these are harmful to health.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#32

Post by Addie » Wed Jul 17, 2019 12:59 pm

Riviera Maya News (May 29)
Sargassum plant set to open in Cancun

Cancun, Q.R. — A sargassum treatment plant is set to open in Cancun this year. The company, Dianco Mexico, already has one plant in Mexico City and plans to open several more along sargasso-infested regions of the Caribbean, starting with Cancun.

During a press conference, Dianco Mexico CEO Héctor Romero Morales said “There is already a solution, to take advantage of all the sargassum that invades the coasts of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean islands. In addition, there is now a place to deposit all the collected sargassum, to take full advantage of it in an ecological way and without waste.”

The company specializes in the scientific study of algae, he explained, saying that they have a patented solution for the sargassum. Romero Morales explained that the new Cancun plant will have the capacity to process up to 600 tons of seaweed daily in three shifts. ...

“All the sargassum, the stuff that accumulates on the coasts, is used to do three things: cellulose, organic fertilizer and biodegradable plastic (bioplastic). We are a Mexican company made up of entrepreneurs, environmentalists and scientists who have been working on this for close to five years,” he explained.


Addie wrote:
Sat Jun 29, 2019 8:22 am
Independent
Climate change blamed as huge mounds of rotten seaweed spoil pristine beaches in Mexico

Piles of sargassum, which smells of rotting eggs and turns sea water brown, covers Rivera Maya coast

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#33

Post by Addie » Sat Jul 20, 2019 8:20 am

AFP
Canadian platform spills 3,200 gallons of oil-mix into Atlantic

An oil platform off the Canadian island of Newfoundland spilled nearly 3,200 gallons of an oil-water mix into the Atlantic Ocean, and efforts were underway to minimize the environmental impact, ExxonMobil said Thursday.

The spill occurred a day earlier during "routine activities related to removing water" from a platform storage cell, the American oil giant said earlier.

"The estimated volume of oil released from the Hibernia platform was 75 barrels of oil, equivalent to approximately 12,000 liters (3,170 gallons)," according to aerial surveillance, the Hibernia Management and Development Company (HMDC) said in a statement released by ExxonMobil.

That area of the North Atlantic is rich in marine life, including species of whales, but HMDC said "no wildlife has been observed in the area" by specialists who were sent out.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#34

Post by Sterngard Friegen » Sat Jul 20, 2019 9:11 am

Addie wrote:
Tue Jul 09, 2019 8:12 pm
The Guardian
'Inside, the fish are black': the pollution tainting Tunisian beaches

Across the Gulf of Tunis, domestic and industrial waste is pouring into the sea, rendering stretches of coastline ‘unusable’ ...


It isn’t just the waters off La Goulette that are causing concern. The entire Gulf of Tunis is drawing activists’ ire, as domestic and industrial waste from the capital’s 600,000 plus residents, in addition to that flowing from the ports and the industrial estates that line the Gulf, makes its way into the waters outside Tunis, impacting fish populations and presenting a clear hazard to human health.

Tunisia’s pollution issues aren’t new. Its heavy industries have been impacting water quality for years. However, since the revolution of 2011, conversation over the environmental impact of its industrial legacy has at least become possible, even if the kind of reversals activists are calling for remain some way off.

Officially around a quarter of Tunisia’s waste water is recycled, intended, among other things, to irrigate the country’s farmlands. The rest (around 247m cubic metres a year), is expelled from the country’s treatment plants directly into the sea and inland waterways. According to environmental regulations, industrial waste water should initially be treated at source, before being transferred for further treatment. However, campaigners question how rigorously this is being enforced. ...

Across Tunisia, industrial and domestic waste water is channelled from broad areas to large treatment plants. Within the Gulf, the outcomes are clear. “We tested both input and output flows between 2016 and 2017 and the results were consistent,” Garbouj, an environmental engineer, says. “We found increased levels of nitrates, manganese particles, phosphate plus faecal coliforms and streptococci – both present within human waste – among other matters. All of these are harmful to health.
Is that pronounced "gar-baj"? However it is pronounced it is the perfect name for an environmentalist talking about the pollutants spewed into the oceans.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#35

Post by Addie » Fri Jul 26, 2019 11:33 am

Haikai Mag: Cities Acidify the Water Next Door

Coastal communities have a stronger effect on local ocean acidification than previously believed.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#36

Post by Addie » Mon Jul 29, 2019 8:00 am

CBS News
Sargassum Used To Wash Ashore In Mexico For 2-3 Weeks; Now It's Six Months Every Year

It is the biggest algae bloom in the world: Massive waves of seaweed called sargassum washing up on shore day after day. Jose Escalante, who has owned a small hotel in Tulum, Mexico, for eight years, said seaweed, which had been cleaned from the beach that day, will again cover the shoreline in a couple of hours. Every day workers here in Tulum, and up and down the Yucatan Peninsula, remove tons and tons of decomposing sargassum from beaches. And every night it comes back.

Rosa Rodríguez-Martínez, from Mexico's National University, is trying to figure out why. She said sargassum used to wash ashore for two or three weeks during the summer. Now? "We are getting sargassum almost from March to October," she told "CBS This Morning" co-host Jeff Glor. "So basically, more than half of the year we are receiving massive amounts." "That's a huge difference," said Glor. "It's impressive," she said. "It's a problem. Economical problem, ecological, and probably a human health problem also."

Since 2011 the amount of sargassum in the Atlantic has increased dramatically. It currently forms a 5,000-mile mass from Africa to the Caribbean. It is estimated to weigh 22 million tons.

Why is it so bad right now? "I think it's because we have polluted the sea too much," said Rodríguez-Martínez. "So, now we have a lot of nutrients [in the ocean], and the algae are taking advantage of it." Fertilizer run-off from Brazil, increased by deforestation, is believed to be the largest fuel source for the sargassum. That, combined with warming ocean water and changing ocean currents, has put the Yucatan squarely in the crosshairs.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#37

Post by Addie » Wed Aug 07, 2019 8:08 am

New York Times
Algae Bloom Fouls N.J.’s Largest Lake, Indicating Broader Crisis

Lake Hopatcong, normally buzzing with swimmers and water skiers, is filled with cyanobacteria in quantities never before recorded.




Around Lake Hopatcong, New Jersey’s largest lake, workers have been laid off, sailing lessons canceled and summers ruined. The reason: clouds of blue-green algae in the water, blooming in quantities never before recorded.

State warnings that the water is unsafe — which began in June and remain in effect for all but one small branch of the lake — have come during a summer of unusually intense algae blooms in many parts of the country. Fueled by heavy rains and hot, sunny days, the blooms have caused high-season swimming bans from lakes in the Pacific Northwest to the entire Mississippi seacoast.

Climate change is a likely factor, scientists say, in an increase in blooms of cyanobacteria — single-cell organisms that, when they grow densely, can produce toxic substances. More frequent, more intense rainstorms that drive nutrients like sewage and fertilizer into waterways — coupled with more hot days to warm the water — create ideal conditions for the blooms, which in recent years have appeared in more places, earlier in the summer.

The biggest challenge is in places with older sewer and stormwater systems that have been overwhelmed by fast-moving storms, as has happened repeatedly this summer in New Jersey and New York. The Environmental Protection Agency has put the cost of upgrading New Jersey’s stormwater system at $16 billion.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#38

Post by RTH10260 » Wed Aug 07, 2019 1:25 pm

Republicans block effort to save the Great Lakes from invasive Asian carp

Written by Sarah Okeson / Raw Story, DC Report August 6, 2019

Republicans sat on a report for months about how to block Asian carp from our nation’s Great Lakes, but now environmentalists are hoping Congress approves money this year to fund preliminary work for a $778 million plan to stop the fish at a dam near Joliet, Ill.

Todd Semonite, the commanding general of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is recommending the plan which includes building a channel with additional electric barriers, flushing lock systems and using underwater speakers to bombard the fish with noise.

“With the Asian Carp on the doorstep of our region’s most vital natural resource, we have a small window of time to stop this invasive species before it inflicts irreparable damage on our Great Lakes and our $7 billion fishing industry and equally important tourism industry,” said Rep. Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio) who chairs the Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development.

An appropriations bill approved by the House in June, H.R.2740,contains a $10 million increase in the Corps investigations account that could be used to fund preliminary work on the proposal. The bill passed 226 to 203 with all the Republicans and seven Democrats voting against it.

The American Waterways Operators, which represents the barge industry, gave $108,500 in campaign contributions to the representatives who voted against the appropriations bill. The Senate, where the barge industry’s PAC has donated $50,500 will now consider the bill.


https://www.alternet.org/2019/08/republ ... sian-carp/

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#39

Post by Lani » Sat Aug 17, 2019 11:21 am

When I moved to Hawaii several decades ago, I was thrilled that I didn't have to worry about jellyfish. Now we have Portuguese Man-O-War that routinely close beaches. As the ocean warms, it creates better breeding grounds for jellyfish while fish we rely on for food shrink.
Insert signature here: ____________________________________________________

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#40

Post by Addie » Fri Aug 30, 2019 3:43 pm

New York Mag
Leaked Draft of U.N. Climate Report Says Warming Oceans Are ‘Poised to Unleash Misery’

The United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is considered the gold standard for assessing the scientific consensus on global warming; if there is an overarching criticism of IPCC reports, it’s that they’re a little too conservative in their presentation of the threat at hand. So when a draft of its newest report stated that if the planet warms beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius it would create ocean conditions “poised to unleash misery,” there’s reason for alarm. A really loud alarm, considering that a 1.5-degree scenario is all but locked in due to emissions that have already left the smokestack.

The report, which leaked to the French News agency AFP and focuses on the oceans and the planet’s stores of frozen water known as the cryosphere, states that if warming isn’t halted at 1.5 degrees Celsius, sea levels will rise high enough to displace around 280 million people. (If perspective is needed, that’s four times the current number of worldwide refugees, which is a record high. And that’s to say nothing of other forms of climate displacement.) By 2100, the draft states that “annual flood damages are expected to increase by two to three orders of magnitude.” That means flood damages will increase either 100- or 1,000-fold — in a world where king tides are already causing cities like Miami to flood on a regular basis, and where Indonesia just announced announced a new inland capital because Jakarta is sinking. By 2050, low-lying cities and small island nations will face “extreme sea-level events” every year. At two degrees, the report anticipates that the frequency of extreme El Niño events will double, leading to greater risk of forest fires and cyclones.

Sea life will take also take a profound hit, as “the same oceans that nourished human evolution are poised to unleash misery on a global scale,” the report warns. Fish stocks could decline substantially from their already depleted numbers. Last year, the U.N. determined that a third of all fisheries were being tapped at an unsustainable rate. In the sea at large, the number of fish and marine life declined by 50 percent between 1972 and 2012.

The draft of the 900-page report is intended to be released in late September following an IPCC meeting in Monaco from September 20 to 23, and follows up on another U.N. report on disastrous land use policies, in which the panel called for a revolution in land use policy: Current agricultural practices use up soil 10 to 100 times faster than it can replenish.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#41

Post by Addie » Sat Aug 31, 2019 9:23 am

Florida State University: Oxygen depletion in ancient oceans caused major mass extinction

For years, scientists struggled to connect a mechanism to this mass extinction, one of the 10 most dramatic ever recorded in Earth's history. Now, researchers from Florida State University have confirmed that this event, referred to by scientists as the Lau/Kozlowskii extinction, was triggered by an all-too-familiar culprit: rapid and widespread depletion of oxygen in the global oceans.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#42

Post by Volkonski » Fri Sep 06, 2019 1:31 pm

These photos of our Texas City show how much of Bay Island was lost to the sea between 1944 and 1989. :o

Image

Image
Image“If everyone fought for their own convictions there would be no war.”
― Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#43

Post by Addie » Sun Sep 15, 2019 11:27 am

New Republic - Max Holleran
The Water Wars Are Here

In a warming world, fights over water usage have become ideological battles.


Everyone remembers the scene in Chinatown when Jack Nicholson almost gets his nose sliced off, but many do not recall what the dispute was about. It wasn’t drug smuggling or gun running that got Nicholson’s character slashed. It was water rights. Since the film was released in 1974, the question of who will get the limited water in the American West, particularly the all-important flow of the Colorado River, has grown even more contentious. ...

The Green River, a tributary of the Colorado that runs through Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado, is a typically acute case. Split between an upper and lower basin, its water is used by seven states. Those upstream in Wyoming attempt to pull out as much water as possible before the hungry downstream cities slurp up their share. The system has strict per-state allocations despite the variable nature of the supply. It runs on a “use it or lose it” policy: Either you take out water annually or your right to it disappears forever. There is no reward for conservation and many western states have no limit on how much water can be taken out of rivers in times of low rainfall, even to guarantee minimum flows for fish. Coordination between agricultural and urban users is almost nonexistent. States enact their own policies rather than joining together to compile a holistic plan, as if complex water systems should obey the arbitrary borderlines of American federalism.

Western states calculated the available water in the Green River at 18 million acre-feet of water per year while the real number is closer to 13 million. Yet, even this does not show the real error of water management: Climate change will dramatically impact freshwater availability through evaporation. Between 2000 and 2014, the inflow to the Colorado River went down by nearly 20 percent and at least one third of that reduction was from global warming. “Between evaporation, reduced inflow, and increased use,” Hansman writes, “the West is sucking itself dry.” Another generation of population growth and current use patterns could make the American West into a quilt of restive water claimants, a sort of Mad Max scenario, though more likely to play out in courts and statehouses rather than among desert vigilantes.

The Green River, like many other waterways, is also in danger of contamination. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) zones surrounding it are viewed by Washington not as idyllic preserves, like National Parks, but as banks of hydrocarbons waiting for money to be squeezed out of them. After all, 90 percent of BLM land is open for drilling despite the fact that fracking liquid and other hazardous materials often seep into rivers. Notwithstanding the BLM’s permissive attitude toward oil and gas exploration, the agency is widely condemned in the West as Big Government despots trying to keep locals subordinated to Washington. The Green River runs very close to Bundy Country where wildlife rangers are perceived with the scorn reserved for an invading army.

Even before people like Cliven Bundy started challenging the federal government in armed standoffs, there was a longer tradition of libertarian thinking that dates back to at least the Sagebrush Rebellion of the 1970s, when homesteading was ended. The very mentality of vast privatization and skepticism about federal coordination of state law is much of the reason why water rights are such a mess in the American West. This reflexive individualism has put off solutions that consider science and give regional attention to rivers rather than scattershot state laws.

Yet, rural libertarian types may be right about one thing: City folk are indeed coming for their water. Despite many ranchers and farmers having more senior rights to rivers, the Southwest is one of the fastest growing regions of the United States. When mushrooming suburbs have water issues, they simply use their municipal budgets to purchase more water from agricultural users in a process known as “buy and dry.” H2O once meant for alfalfa goes into sprinklers and showerheads. This has not only produced alarm among those worried about local food supplies but also about what it will mean if the West loses its farming culture to sprawling subdivisions and golf courses.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#44

Post by Addie » Sat Sep 21, 2019 8:42 am

Mother Jones
Retreat From Rising Seas? It May Be Controversial, but It’s the World’s New Reality.

“These changes will happen whether we like it or not.”


Indonesia just found itself a new capital. The country’s president, Joko Widodo, announced last Monday that the new seat of government will be on the island of Borneo, hundreds of miles to the northeast of the current capital, Jakarta. The crowded city’s aquifers have been drained and the ground is caving in, making it one of the fastest sinking cities in the world. The Java Sea threatens to swallow 95 percent of the city over the next 30 years.

Retreating from coastlines and riversides might have once been considered unthinkable. But across the world, it’s already happening—in Australia, Colombia, Vietnam, and here in the United States. Thousands of homeowners in Houston have asked the local county to buy their chronically flooded properties. A New Jersey town is moving residents out of risky areas near the rivers and turning the land into a natural buffer to protect other homes. The US military is at work constructing a new site for an indigenous Yup’ik community in Alaska that asked to be relocated after thawing permafrost beneath the village caused it to slide into the river.

An overheating planet and unchecked development along the coasts have let the sea expand into new territory, leaving many people who live along the shores unsettled (in both senses of the word). According to the United Nations, up to 1 billion people could be displaced by storms, droughts, and floods in 30 years. In the United States, the cost for protecting people and property from rising seas and intense downpours is expected to climb into the hundreds of billions of dollars in the coming decades—and that’s a conservative estimate.

There’s “an ongoing mass migration” away from our coasts, said Elizabeth Rush, author of the Pulitzer-prize nominated book Rising: Dispatches from the New American Shore. “These changes will happen whether we like it or not,” Rush said. “How profoundly and how detrimentally they reshape our coastal communities is up to us.”
Adding:
Scientific American - Aug 1 2018: Surrendering to Rising Seas

Coastal communities struggling to adapt to rising seas are beginning to do what was once unthinkable: retreat
Bloomberg: America's great climate exodus is starting in the Florida Keys

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#45

Post by Volkonski » Tue Oct 01, 2019 3:22 pm

Image“If everyone fought for their own convictions there would be no war.”
― Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#46

Post by Volkonski » Tue Oct 08, 2019 1:09 pm


Saltwater is killing woodlands along the East Coast, sometimes surprisingly far from the sea.
As Sea Levels Rise, So Do Ghost Forests


https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/201 ... rests.html
Increasingly powerful storms, a consequence of a warming world, push seawater inland. More intense dry spells reduce freshwater flowing outward. Adding to the peril, in some places the land is naturally sinking.

All of this allows seawater to claim new territory, killing trees from the roots up.

:snippity:

Part of the reason for the quickly rising waters may be that the Gulf Stream, which flows northward up the coast, is slowing down as meltwater from Greenland inhibits its flow. That is causing what some scientists describe as a pileup of water along the East Coast, elevating sea levels locally.

The effects of climate change are also exacerbated by land that is sinking as a result of geological processes triggered by the end of the last ice age.
Image
Image“If everyone fought for their own convictions there would be no war.”
― Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace

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