April 22,1915 Second Battle of Ypres begins, first military use of toxic gas

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RTH10260
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April 22,1915 Second Battle of Ypres begins, first military use of toxic gas

#1

Post by RTH10260 » Wed Apr 22, 2015 7:09 pm

Second Battle of Ypres begins

On this day in 1915, German forces shock Allied soldiers along the Western Front by firing more than 150 tons of lethal chlorine gas against two French colonial divisions at Ypres in Belgium.

Toxic smoke had been used occasionally in warfare since ancient times, and in 1912, the French used small amounts of tear gas in police operations. At the outbreak of World War I, however, the Germans began to actively develop chemical weapons. In October 1914, small tear-gas canisters were placed in shells that were fired at Neuve Chapelle, France, but Allied troops were not exposed. In January 1915, the Germans fired shells loaded with xylyl bromide, a more lethal gas, at Russian troops at Bolimov on the Eastern Front. Because of the wintry cold, most of the gas froze, but the Russians nonetheless reported more than 1,000 killed as a result of the new weapon.

On April 22, 1915, the Germans launched their first and only offensive of the year. Now referred to as the Second Battle of Ypres, the offensive began with the usual artillery bombardment of the enemy’s line. When the shelling died down, the Allied defenders waited for the first wave of German attack troops but instead were thrown into panic when chlorine gas wafted across no-man’s land and down into their trenches. The Germans targeted four miles of the front with the wind-blown poison gas, decimating two divisions of French and Algerian colonial troops. The Germans, perhaps as shocked as the Allies by the devastating effects of the poison gas, failed to take full advantage, and the Allies managed to hold most of their positions.

A second gas attack, against a Canadian division, on April 24, pushed the Allies further back, and, by May, they had retreated to the town of Ypres. The Second Battle of Ypres ended on May 25, with insignificant gains for the Germans. The introduction of poison gas, however, would have great significance in World War I.



http://www.history.com/this-day-in-hist ... res-begins



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RTH10260
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April 22,1915 Second Battle of Ypres begins, first military use of toxic gas

#2

Post by RTH10260 » Wed Apr 22, 2015 7:11 pm




Ragged Edgar
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April 22,1915 Second Battle of Ypres begins, first military use of toxic gas

#3

Post by Ragged Edgar » Wed Apr 22, 2015 8:55 pm

Thanks, RTH



I sometimes think that the horrors of WW I were a starting pistol for the race between humanity and the politically complex, industrialized world that it created. That is not an original thought, by any means, but your Ypres posting brought it to the front of my brain.



By the by, have you seen a BBC film called "The Wipers Times"? It follows a British officer who starts an unofficial and humorous newspaper while in Ypres during the war. (The Tommys pronounced "Ypres" as "Wipers.")



Make War No More.



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RTH10260
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April 22,1915 Second Battle of Ypres begins, first military use of toxic gas

#4

Post by RTH10260 » Wed Apr 29, 2015 7:07 pm







Dive discovers missing WWII Japanese submarine

April 29, 2015









In its glory days. (Credit: University of Hawaii)













Republish Reprint









Brett Smith for redOrbit.com – Your Universe Online

At the conclusion of World War II, the Japanese navy’s massive I-400 ‘supersub’ was scuttled off the coast of Hawaii to prevent its state-or-the-art technology from falling into the hands of the Soviet Union.



Before and after of the sub. (Credit: University of Hawaii)



After the I-400’s wreckage was initially discovered in 2013 – a more recent expedition, set to be televised on Japanese national TV, located parts of the submarine’s enormous airplane hangar and navigation platform, or conning tower.

The aircraft hanger was the defining feature of the I-400 and was capable of holding three bomber planes. The expedition also discovered the submarine’s large bell on the seafloor next to the conning tower.





http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/11 ... ne-042915/







More with video clip at http://phys.org/news/2015-04-aircraft-h ... i-era.html



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