Science, General Stuff

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RTH10260
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1326

Post by RTH10260 »

This is the only known animal that doesn’t need oxygen to survive
By Rodrigo Pérez Ortega Feb. 26, 2020 , 5:05 PM

Breathing is essential for animals to stay alive. Or so we thought. In a study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers have now identified the first animal that doesn’t use oxygen to breathe: Henneguya salminicola, an 8-millimeter white parasite that infects the flesh of Chinook salmon. Multicellular organisms use oxygen to produce energy, a process that happens in the mitochondria. This organelle has its own genes for this process, but when scientists looked for them in the parasite, they were completely absent, New Scientist reports. The reason why this animal­­ lost the genes to breathe is unclear, but it’s possible it gets its energy from its host.


https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/02 ... en-survive
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#1327

Post by tencats »

DNA testing reveals Chattanooga Zoo’s Komodo dragon produced offspring on her own
https://www.kiro7.com/news/trending/dna ... QFQLHCRO4/
The three hatchlings were born at the zoo to Charlie on Aug. 4, 2019, the newspaper reported. DNA testing showed the first-time mother had not produced the eggs with the help of male dragon Kadal. Instead, Charlie reproduced through parthenogenesis, the newspaper reported.

Parthenogenesis is a process where a female can produce offspring without male fertilization, the News Free Press reported.

Charlie and Kadal were paired together, but as it turned out, Charlie did not need any help.

“Although Kadal and Charlie were placed together in the hopes of breeding, the Chattanooga Zoo staff is very excited to witness this monumental work of nature and be part of such an important conservation program,” zoo officials said in a news release.
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1328

Post by Notorial Dissent »

Didn't know they could do that. Cussed creatures. Really neat, fun to watch.
The fact that you sincerely and wholeheartedly believe that the “Law of Gravity” is unconstitutional and a violation of your sovereign rights, does not absolve you of adherence to it.
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1329

Post by AndyinPA »

Cool!
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1330

Post by Danraft »

I’ve done some interesting reading on whales because of my interest in diagnosing chronic diseases using metabolic markers. Turns out the best source of bio markers is in earwax (because many markers are lipid soluble and/or produced by the cholesterol pathways that change dramatically with metabolic regulation (HMG-CoA pathways)).

Stress hormones are easily studied in cerumen and whales are unusual because their earwax builds up in hard layered ear plugs that show sequential changes in cortisol levels. These ear plugs have been saved in museums and have been used to create a theoretical timeline of whale stress using cortisol levels in earplugs as a proxy.
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/news/201 ... s-out.html


RTH10260 wrote: Fri Mar 06, 2020 3:28 am
Solar storms can hamper whales' navigation, cause them to strand: Study
Radio frequency noise created by solar outburst affects whales’ senses and prevents them from navigating, according to the research

By DTE Staff
Last Updated: Tuesday 25 February 2020

Sudden releases of high-energy particles from the sun, called solar storms, can mess with the navigational ability of California gray whales, causing them to strand on land. The finding was recently published in science journal Current Biology.

Solar storms have the potential to modify geomagnetic field and disrupt magnetic orientation behaviour of animals, hampering their navigation during long periods of migration.

According to Duke University’s Jesse Granger, who authored the research paper, solar storms disrupt earth’s magnetic field — and the whales’ navigational sense.

However, it might not be the solar storm warping the Earth’s magnetic field that causes whales to lose way, according to Granger. The radio frequency noise created by the solar outburst affects the whales’ senses in a way that prevents them from navigating at all.

While correlation between solar activity and migratory behavior has been established before, Granger’s research tries to dig deeper.

According to the study, gray whales were chosen to test the relationship because they migrate 10,000 miles a year, from Baja California to Alaska and back.

Her team compiled datasets from United States' National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and studied cases of over 31 years where gray whales were stranded. Data on whales which were sick, injured or malnourished was omitted. A total of 186 such cases of healthy strandings were found.

On studying the impact of solar activity on stranding, Granger concluded that gray whales were 4.3 times more likely to strand when a lot of radio frequency noise from a solar outburst was hitting the Earth.


https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/sci ... tudy-69446
The Mercury Project
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#1331

Post by RVInit »

One of my favorite Twitter feeds. I get on their website and follow a number of sharks. There is high quality science being done in spite of everything else.

"I know that human being and fish can coexist peacefully"
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1332

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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1333

Post by Volkonski »

Physics takes a hit.
CERN
@CERN
#Covid_19
CERN has taken several strict measures to protect the health of all of CERN’s personnel, visitors, and contractors. These measures include the cancellation of all public guided tours, public events, as well as closing our exhibitions until further notice. 1/3
2:00 PM · Mar 12, 2020·Twitter Web App

CERN has suspended all travels on behalf of CERN, and on-site meetings are limited in scope and size. As of 16 March, access to the CERN sites by our community will be limited. 2/3

The goal is to reduce the density of people on site, by focussing on our essential on-site activities at this stage. CERN is very aware that it may evolve further. For up-to-date information, please see: https://hse.cern/news-article/coronavir ... mendations 3/3
Image“If everyone fought for their own convictions there would be no war.”
― Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1334

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But the God particle - it ought to protect them :?:
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#1335

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Why Measles Deaths Are Surging—and Coronavirus Could Make it Worse
Measles has killed thousands in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and 23 countries have suspended vaccination campaigns

By Leslie Roberts, Nature magazine on April 8, 2020

A motorcycle driver loads vaccines to be transported in further rural areas in Temba, near Seke Banza, western DR Congo on March 3, 2020. Credit: Junior Kannah Getty Images
A viral outbreak has killed more than 6,500 children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and is still spreading through the country. The foe isn’t the feared coronavirus, which has only just reached the DRC. It’s an old, familiar and underestimated adversary: measles.

Cases began to spike here in October 2018. Children became weak, feverish and congested, with red eyes and painful sores in their mouths, all with the telltale rash of measles. “We have been running after the virus ever since,” says Balcha Masresha, an epidemiologist with the World Health Organization (WHO) regional Africa office in Brazzaville in the neighbouring Republic of Congo. The situation has mushroomed into what WHO experts say might be the largest documented measles outbreak in one country since the world gained a measles vaccine in 1963 (see ‘Measles cases on the rise’).

The highly contagious measles virus continues to spread around the globe. In 2018, cases surged to an estimated 10 million worldwide, with 140,000 deaths, a 58% increase since 2016. In rich countries, scattered measles outbreaks are fuelled by people refusing to vaccinate their children. But in poor countries, the problems are health systems so broken and underfunded that it is nigh-on impossible to deliver the vaccine to people who need it. The DRC’s flood of cases shows why measles will keep flaring up despite efforts to control it. And the situation will only worsen with the COVID-19 pandemic: more than 20 countries have already suspended measles vaccination campaigns as healthcare workers scramble to deal with coronavirus.


https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... -it-worse/
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1336

Post by Tiredretiredlawyer »

This is dedicated to Suranis.

https://phys.org/news/2020-04-mouse-rev ... tions.html
The face of a mouse reveals its emotions: study

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology are the first to describe emotional facial expressions for mice. Similar to humans, mouse facial expressions change when it tastes something sweet or bitter, or when it becomes anxious. With this new possibility of measuring the emotions of mice, neurobiologists can investigate the basic mechanisms of how emotions are generated and processed in the brain.

When the scientists measured the activity of individual neurons using two-photon microscopy and simultaneously recorded the emotional facial expressions of the mouse, something astonishing came to light: Individual neurons of the insular cortex reacted with the same strength and at the exactly same time as the mouse's facial expression. In addition, each individual neuron was linked to only one single emotion.
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A 19th Amendment Centennial Moment:
August 26 was proclaimed Women's Equality Day in 1972 by Richard Nixon. August 26, 1920, was date the 19th Amendment was confirmed by the Secretary of State and became law.
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#1337

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#1338

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Mars Needs Money: White House Budget Could Prompt Retreat from Red Planet
Proposed cuts could end decades of U.S. leadership in exploring that world

By Leonard David on April 30, 2020

NASA’s Mars Exploration Program is in calamitous straits. Cuts to the program in President Donald Trump’s budget proposal for the 2021 fiscal year (FY) could pull the plug on the space agency’s ensemble of orbiters, as well as its only active Mars rover, Curiosity, which has been prowling the Red Planet since 2012.

If unchanged, the budget numbers would, in this calendar year, shutter an aged but functional communications relay and science orbiter, Mars Odyssey, which has operated at the planet since 2001. They would also curtail Curiosity just as it reaches new heights in its ongoing science investigations on Mount Sharp in Gale Crater. The funding shortfall would close out the rover’s work late next year, before it can explore a major transition in the ancient climate of Mars that is thought to be recorded in rocks higher on the mountain.

Furthermore, the FY 2021 budget reduces the science sleuthing of NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) by 20 percent. It cuts the number of targeted observations MRO can execute in half, purging most of the special data products associated with them. Like Mars Odyssey, MRO is a dual-purpose orbiter, serving as a crucial data relay while also providing high-resolution imagery of potential future landing sites.

The diminished budget would also impact the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft, scaling back that mission’s science operations to minimal levels. Orbiting Mars since 2014, MAVEN allows researchers to track the ongoing deterioration of the planet’s atmosphere—a process that, billions of years ago, transformed Mars from a warm, wet world to its current cold, arid state.


https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... ed-planet/
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#1339

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don't blink or you'll have missed it
The World's Fastest Camera Is Frankly Mind-Boggling
At 70 trillion frames per second, it's fast enough to document nuclear fusion and radioactive molecule decay.

BY COURTNEY LINDER
MAY 12, 2020

Scientists developed a new camera that can take a whopping 70 trillion frames per second.
One of the inventors calls the new process compressed ultrafast spectral photography, or CUSP.
The study appears in the April 29 edition of Nature Communications.


For as much as cameras allow us to experience phenomena that would otherwise go unnoticed, their imaging speeds still fundamentally limit our capability to see, well, everything. Now, scientists at the California Institute of Technology hope to change that.

In a new paper published in the journal Nature Communications, the scientists outline a new imaging technique that can capture a mind-boggling 70 trillion frames per second.

Prior imaging developments based on silicon sensors have ushered in speeds up to millions of frames per second, Lihong Wang, a medical engineering and electrical engineering professor at Caltech, tells Popular Mechanics. But that still isn't nearly fast enough to observe and document some of the most fleeting curiosities in our physical world, from nuclear fusion, to ultrashort pulses of light on the order of picoseconds (10−12 second), to the fluorescent radioactive decay of molecules.

Scientists usually study these ultra-fast occurrences by triggering the desired event multiple times and repeatedly observing it through a different window of time. This nonlinear approach, often used to study chemical reactions, is called the pump-probe method. While clever, it's still impossible to render images of the ultrafast events in real time, which means only repeatable tasks may benefit from it.

Wang's technique, which he calls compressed ultrafast spectral photography (CUSP), uses short pulses of laser light that each last for just one femtosecond, or one quadrillionth of a second. It's easiest to think of the advanced process in two steps: imaging and illumination.


https://www.popularmechanics.com/techno ... st-camera/
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#1340

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Young Earthers please skip this article
Biggest Ever Yellowstone Eruption Revealed
The ancient supervolcano under the national park was much more explosive in its early history and could be slowing down, a new study suggests

By Shannon Hall on June 15, 2020
Biggest Ever Yellowstone Eruption Revealed

Roughly 8.7 million years ago, in areas that would become southern Idaho and northern Nevada, the grasslands began to break open, unleashing curtains of lava and clouds of gas and ash that rolled across the North American landscape. Within hours, if not minutes, the land would have been pummeled by black volcanic glass that rained from above, killing animals such as rhinoceroses, camels, and horses that roamed the region, and destroying plants. Soon the ground would cave in altogether. The event was the largest explosion ever from the supervolcano in Yellowstone National Park.

And scientists just found out about it. A recent study published in Geology identified evidence for this supereruption and estimated it was 30 percent larger than the previous record holder, which occurred 2.1 million years ago. Both eruptions were colossal. Supervolcanoes have the ability to destroy entire regions and send enough ash and gas into the air to alter the climate. The one at Yellowstone, scientists believe, is fueled by a column of hot rock that emerges from deep within the planet. As North America’s tectonic plate slowly drifts over that plume, the supervolcano’s surface activity moves from place to place. Over the past 16.5 million years, it has spouted major eruptions from Oregon to Wyoming. Today it powers Yellowstone’s simmering landscape of geysers and hot springs and is is often a favorite doomsday topic on social media and Web sites trafficking in rumors. The new research indicates the volcano’s history was even more violent than geologists had thought, but there are hints the hotspot could be waning in intensity.


https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... n-revealed
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#1341

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Coronavirus Responses Highlight How Humans Have Evolved to Dismiss Facts That Don’t Fit Their Worldview
Science denialism is not just a simple matter of logic or ignorance

By Adrian Bardon, The Conversation US on June 26, 2020

Bemoaning uneven individual and state compliance with public health recommendations, top U.S. COVID-19 adviser Anthony Fauci recently blamed the country’s ineffective pandemic response on an American “anti-science bias.” He called this bias “inconceivable,” because “science is truth.” Fauci compared those discounting the importance of masks and social distancing to “anti-vaxxers” in their “amazing” refusal to listen to science.

It is Fauci’s profession of amazement that amazes me. As well-versed as he is in the science of the coronavirus, he’s overlooking the well-established science of “anti-science bias,” or science denial.

Americans increasingly exist in highly polarized, informationally insulated ideological communities occupying their own information universes.

Within segments of the political blogosphere, global warming is dismissed as either a hoax or so uncertain as to be unworthy of response. Within other geographic or online communities, the science of vaccine safety, fluoridated drinking water and genetically modified foods is distorted or ignored. There is a marked gap in expressed concern over the coronavirus depending on political party affiliation, apparently based in part on partisan disagreements over factual issues like the effectiveness of social distancing or the actual COVID-19 death rate.

In theory, resolving factual disputes should be relatively easy: Just present strong evidence, or evidence of a strong expert consensus. This approach succeeds most of the time, when the issue is, say, the atomic weight of hydrogen.

But things don’t work that way when scientific advice presents a picture that threatens someone’s perceived interests or ideological worldview. In practice, it turns out that one’s political, religious or ethnic identity quite effectively predicts one’s willingness to accept expertise on any given politicized issue.

“Motivated reasoning” is what social scientists call the process of deciding what evidence to accept based on the conclusion one prefers. As I explain in my book, “The Truth About Denial,” this very human tendency applies to all kinds of facts about the physical world, economic history and current events.


https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... worldview/
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1342

Post by Tiredretiredlawyer »

https://www.livescience.com/anglerfish- ... ystem.html
Evolution turned this fish into a 'penis with a heart.' Here's how.

When it comes to dating in the abyssal depths of the ocean, appearance doesn't matter much. That's fortunate for anglerfish, which resemble nightmarish fanged potatoes with a little reading lamp on top. And those are just the females.

If you've never seen a male anglerfish before, you're not missing much. Measuring just a few centimeters long on average, male anglers are a mere fraction of their partners' size, and contribute a fraction of the work to their relationships. For many anglerfish species, the male's sole responsibility is to permanently latch onto an obliging mate, fuse his circulatory system with hers, then slowly allow his eyes, fins and most of his internal organs to degenerate until he becomes what biologist Stephen Jay Gould called "a penis with a heart." The male gets constant nourishment; the female gets sperm on demand. The anglerfish circle of life spins on.

It's beautiful, we know. But this unique mating ritual — which biologists call "sexual parasitism" — has long stumped researchers. How could the female angler's immune system even allow such a permanent, parasitic union to occur? Humans have a hard-enough time accepting organ transplants that don't precisely match their own tissues, so how does a female anglerfish's body accept a male's (or, in some cases, up to eight simultaneous males) so willingly? A genetic study published July 30 in the journal Science finally offers an answer: Anglerfish mating is only possible because the fish have somehow evolved away some of their most crucial immune defenses.


A 19th Amendment Centennial Moment:
August 26 was proclaimed Women's Equality Day in 1972 by Richard Nixon. August 26, 1920, was date the 19th Amendment was confirmed by the Secretary of State and became law.
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#1343

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Ebola Is Now Curable. Here’s How the New Treatments Work
Officials cut short a clinical trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo after two treatments appear to greatly increase patients' survival rates.

:snippity:


https://www.wired.com/story/ebola-is-no ... ents-work/
Sorry - I just noticed that this article was not eaxctly fresh off the press: posted 08.12.2019
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1344

Post by RTH10260 »

:think: How long that individual-1 will no longer tout Ebola as an Obama failure but claim this medical advancment as his achievement ?
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Re: Science, General Stuff

#1345

Post by ZekeB »

RTH10260 wrote: Thu Aug 06, 2020 2:42 pm :think: How long that individual-1 will no longer tout Ebola as an Obama failure but claim this medical advancment as his achievement ?
trump had better hurry and walk back his withdrawal from the WHO first.
Trump: Er hat eine größere Ente als ich.

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:geezertowel:
Celebrating Scientific American’s 175th Anniversary
Enjoy some surprising history and the most dizzying discoveries

By Laura Helmuth | Scientific American August 2020 Issue

Welcome to Scientific American's 175th anniversary issue! We've had a blast putting it together and hope you enjoy it. Scientific American is the oldest continuously published magazine in the U.S. For our demisemiseptcentennial (also known as, no kidding, a quartoseptcentennial), we are presenting a mix of surprising history stories (featuring Harry Houdini, M. C. Escher and federal censors burning copies of our magazine) and deeper looks at some of the most transformative, thrilling, dizzying discoveries of the past 175 years.

When the magazine began, the universe didn't seem as big as it is today. Astronomers thought our Milky Way galaxy was the extent of the universe. Now we know we inhabit just one of over 100 billion galaxies. The universe isn't just mind-bendingly big, it's getting bigger, and—as if that weren't enough—the rate of expansion is faster all the time. Astrophysicist Martin Rees shows what we've learned and what the biggest questions are for the next 175 years.

One of the most disturbing discoveries of the past 175 years is that, on at least five occasions, most of the species on Earth have abruptly died off. The mass extinctions were triggered by massive volcanic activity or an asteroid impact, causing a cascade of catastrophe that disrupted the atmosphere and wiped out plants and animals that had ruled the planet for hundreds of millions of years. Now we are in danger of causing a sixth mass extinction. Author Peter Brannen guides us through the absolute worst times on Earth and shows what was lost.

Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species 14 years after Scientific American was established, transforming our understanding of life on Earth and of our own history as a species. Senior editor Kate Wong introduces our evolutionary ancestors from the past seven million years and reveals that our family tree is impressively tangled.

In the midst of a global pandemic, it's startling to read about how confident we once were that medicine could conquer infectious disease, as journalist Maryn McKenna recounts. Our best long-term hope for conquering the new coronavirus is research into vaccines and antivirals, but in the meantime, public health measures that have been used for more than 175 years are the best way to stay safe. That, and staying informed by trustworthy sources of scientific information.

The most visible differences between life in 1845 and 2020 are technological. Historians Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway explore how science and technology have developed in parallel, each boosting the other, and how advances in information sharing are some of the main drivers of innovation.

To understand the information Scientific American has presented over the years, senior graphics editor Jen Christiansen and data designer Moritz Stefaner visualized the most commonly used words for each year of our existence. The visualization project begins here and continues throughout the issue with a time line and pairs of words that peaked in different years, showing ways the language of science has evolved.

The most shameful episodes in our history are when we used scientific language to promote bigotry. Senior editor Jen Schwartz and senior copy editor Dan Schlenoff reckon with the sexism and racism in our archives and show how science can be twisted to make bias seem like objectivity. We are committed to making Scientific American's future more inclusive and just.


https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... niversary/
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How an Article about the H-Bomb Landed Scientific American in the Middle of the Red Scare
At one time this magazine tangled with the FBI, the Atomic Energy Commission and Joseph McCarthy

By Alfred W. McCoy | Scientific American September 2020 Issue

Redacted: Hans Bethe's H-bomb article. Credit: National Archives and Records Administration, Archives II, Record Group 326, Records of the Atomic Energy Commission, Office of the Secretary, General Correspondence Relating to Weapons, 1946–1951, Box 1 07, Folder 380.01, “Publication of Information Regarding the Thermonuclear Bomb (Secret).” Image provided by Alex Wellerstein

On April 1, 1950, the New York Times carried a sensational front-page headline, “U.S. Censors H-Bomb Data; 3,000 Magazine Copies Burnt.” The story's lead sentence read: “Gerard Piel, editor of the Scientific American, attacked the censorship policies of the Atomic Energy Commission yesterday when he disclosed ....” The article went on to report that the government had destroyed every trace of the original text by physicist Hans Bethe, melting down the “objectionable linotype slugs” at the printing plant and then incinerating the “complete file of proofs” along with those 3,000 printed copies.

Piel, a scion of the family that brewed Piels Beer, was one of the first journalists to recognize the implications of nuclear research for weapon making, and he faced censorship, blacklisting and surveillance. Reporting for Life from 1943 to 1944, Piel was shown a telegram from the wartime Office of Censorship warning the magazine that certain topics, such as “atomic energy” and “uranium,” were now classified. “I took that telegram as a reading list,” Piel recalled. During an interview with Piel, Robert W. Wood of Johns Hopkins University fumed about a secret Manhattan Project that was placing heavy orders for his spectroscopic research equipment. The physicist, however, figured out the purpose of the classified endeavor. “They're engaged in making the most frightful weapon,” Wood told Piel.

Realizing the “Age of the Atom” was dawning, Piel spoke with close colleagues at Life about a new publication with the editorial independence for an informed discussion about the uses of science. With Life buddy Dennis Flanagan and New York friend Donald H. Miller, Jr., Piel relaunched the moribund Scientific American in 1948 with a simple editorial approach. Leading scientists would explain developments in their fields to intelligent readers, and Scientific American's editors would translate their convoluted texts into readable prose. This editorial formula captivated its educated audience, eventually attracting essays by more than 150 Nobel Prize winners, including Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr and Francis Crick.

After Piel recruited colleagues from Life, famed informer Whitaker Chambers, then a senior editor at Time, told the FBI “that a group of three or four people left Time and became editors of Scientific American.” He also reported they were “probably Communist sympathizers,” adding erroneously that “a mysterious subsidy” became available to buy Scientific American.

In 1950 Scientific American joined the nuclear debate with a four-part inquiry into the hydrogen bomb. In the first installment, scientist Louis Ridenour criticized the decision to build this destructive weapon and condemned the “bankruptcy of our secrecy policy” that stifled public debate. A month later, in the April 1950 issue, physicist Hans Bethe pleaded for finding ways to“save humanity from this ultimate disaster” by reconsidering the president's decision to build the new super bomb. Because he had circulated his draft among colleagues, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) had seen the manuscript, and it telegrammed the magazine to bar publication of Bethe's article, which had already gone through part of its press run. When Piel asked for specific objections, the AEC replied that any details could compromise national security. In a closed-door confrontation, the AEC finally agreed to permit publication with some “ritual deletions.”



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#1348

Post by Tiredretiredlawyer »

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-ne ... 180975712/
World’s Deepest Freshwater Cave Is Twice as Deep as Previously Thought
New research shows the Hranice Abyss in the Czech Republic is 3,280 feet deep


Measurements taken in 2016 with a remotely operated vehicle secured its spot as the deepest freshwater cave when it dove to a depth of 1,300 feet in the abyss. But a combination of geophysical techniques, including the use of electrodes and small explosives, have now revealed a rough map of the caves, featuring sediment-covered trenches that reach more than a half mile deep. The process is detailed in a paper published last month in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. The evidence also points to a new explanation for how the cavern formed.

The Hranice Abyss is located in a limestone formation in the Czech Republic. The stone face is full of holes worn away by acidic snowmelt, leaving it Swiss cheese-like, reports Science magazine. Many caverns were formed by this top-down erosion, but scientists long believed that the Hranice Abyss was formed from the bottom-up because of chemicals found in the water that come from deep underground.

The research team led by geophysicist Radek Klanica of the Czech Academy of Sciences first used an array of electrodes to map the structure of the limestone based on its ability to conduct electricity. Another array of sensors measured slight variations in gravity around the abyss. Finally, a series of small explosions created waves that bounced through the cavern and back to sensors on the surface.

The series of techniques revealed that the deepest parts of the Abyss are filled with sediment, but also suggest that the cave was formed as groundwater drained through the limestone from the mountains above.
A 19th Amendment Centennial Moment:
August 26 was proclaimed Women's Equality Day in 1972 by Richard Nixon. August 26, 1920, was date the 19th Amendment was confirmed by the Secretary of State and became law.
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