The Summary Findings in Volume 2 is 8 pages long so just the 1st sentences of each section-
Climate change creates new risks and exacerbates existing vulnerabilities in communities across
the United States, presenting growing challenges to human health and safety, quality of life, and
the rate of economic growth.
Without substantial and sustained global mitigation and regional adaptation efforts, climate
change is expected to cause growing losses to American infrastructure and property and impede
the rate of economic growth over this century.
Climate change affects the natural, built, and social systems we rely on individually and through
their connections to one another. These interconnected systems are increasingly vulnerable to
cascading impacts that are often difficult to predict, threatening essential services within and
beyond the Nation’s borders.
Communities, governments, and businesses are working to reduce risks from and costs associated with climate change by taking action to lower greenhouse gas emissions and implement
adaptation strategies. While mitigation and adaptation efforts have expanded substantially in
the last four years, they do not yet approach the scale considered necessary to avoid substantial
damages to the economy, environment, and human health over the coming decades.
The quality and quantity of water available for use by people and ecosystems across the country
are being affected by climate change, increasing risks and costs to agriculture, energy production,
industry, recreation, and the environment.
Impacts from climate change on extreme weather and climate-related events, air quality, and the
transmission of disease through insects and pests, food, and water increasingly threaten the
health and well-being of the American people, particularly populations that are already vulnerable.
Climate change increasingly threatens Indigenous communities’ livelihoods, economies, health,
and cultural identities by disrupting interconnected social, physical, and ecological systems.
Ecosystems and the benefits they provide to society are being altered by climate change, and
these impacts are projected to continue. Without substantial and sustained reductions in global
greenhouse gas emissions, transformative impacts on some ecosystems will occur; some coral
reef and sea ice ecosystems are already experiencing such transformational changes.
Rising temperatures, extreme heat, drought, wildfire on rangelands, and heavy downpours are
expected to increasingly disrupt agricultural productivity in the United States. Expected increases in challenges to livestock health, declines in crop yields and quality, and changes in extreme
events in the United States and abroad threaten rural livelihoods, sustainable food security, and
Our Nation’s aging and deteriorating infrastructure is further stressed by increases in heavy precipitation events, coastal flooding, heat, wildfires, and other extreme events, as well as changes
to average precipitation and temperature. Without adaptation, climate change will continue to degrade infrastructure performance over the rest of the century, with the potential for cascading impacts that threaten our economy, national security, essential services, and health and well-being.
Coastal communities and the ecosystems that support them are increasingly threatened by the
impacts of climate change. Without significant reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions
and regional adaptation measures, many coastal regions will be transformed by the latter part of
this century, with impacts affecting other regions and sectors. Even in a future with lower greenhouse gas emissions, many communities are expected to suffer financial impacts as chronic
high-tide flooding leads to higher costs and lower property values.
Outdoor recreation, tourist economies, and quality of life are reliant on benefits provided by our
natural environment that will be degraded by the impacts of climate change in many ways.