Water Troubles

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Addie
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Re: Water Troubles

#326

Post by Addie » Thu Nov 01, 2018 1:05 pm

Inside Climate News: Fracking Water Use Explodes

As the fracking boom matures, the drilling industry’s use of water and other fluids to produce oil and natural gas has grown dramatically in the past several years, outstripping the growth of the fossil fuels it produces.

A new study published Wednesday in the peer-reviewed journal Science Advances says the trend—a greater environmental toll than previously described—results from recent changes in drilling practices as drillers compete to make new wells more productive. For example, well operators have increased the length of the horizontal portion of wells drilled through shale rock where rich reserves of oil and gas are locked up.

They also have significantly increased the amount of water, sand and other materials they pump into the wells to hydraulically fracture the rock and thus release more hydrocarbons trapped within the shale.

The amount of water used per well in fracking jumped by as much as 770 percent, or nearly 9-fold, between 2011 and 2016, the study says. Even more dramatically, wastewater production in each well’s first year increased up to 15-fold over the same years.



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Re: Water Troubles

#327

Post by Addie » Mon Dec 10, 2018 9:28 am

PBS News Hour
Freshwater is getting saltier, threatening people and wildlife

Salts that de-ice roads, parking lots and sidewalks keep people safe in winter. But new research shows they are contributing to a sharp and widely rising problem across the U.S. At least a third of the rivers and streams in the country have gotten saltier in the past 25 years. And by 2100, more than half of them may contain at least 50 percent more salt than they used to. Increasing salinity will not just affect freshwater plants and animals but human lives as well—notably, by affecting drinking water.

Sujay Kaushal, a biogeochemist at the University of Maryland, College Park, recounts an experience he had when visiting relatives in New Jersey. When getting a drink from the tap, “I saw a white film on the glass.” After trying to scrub it off, he found, “it turned out to be a thin layer of salt crusting the glass.”

When Kaushal, who studies how salt invades freshwater sources, sampled the local water supply he found not just an elevated level of the sodium chloride, widely used in winter to de-ice outdoor surfaces, but plenty of other salts such as sodium bicarbonate and magnesium chloride. He also found similar concentrations of these chemicals in most rivers along the east coast, including the Potomac, which provides drinking water for Washington, D.C. Where did all of it come from?

De-icing salts, Kaushal determined, are part of the problem, slowly corroding our infrastructure. Estimates put the cost of repairs at about $1,000 per ton of de-icing salt imposed on the environment. But he also found a link to acid rain, caused by the air pollution from burning fossil fuels in power plants and cars. “Decades of acid rain have dissolved not just portions of rock and soils but buildings and roads as well—all of which have added various salts to the water,” he says. Although the acidity of the rain is decreasing, it is still present. Meantime the amount of concrete and asphalt in the world have continued to expand.

Salts can free up other pollutants, too. In his own house near Washington, D.C., Kaushal once had black water coming from the tap. “The salts in the water were leaching manganese — a neurotoxin — from the old pipes in the neighborhood,” he says.



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Re: Water Troubles

#328

Post by Volkonski » Mon Dec 10, 2018 9:39 am

Time to invest in companies that do desalination.


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Re: Water Troubles

#329

Post by Addie » Tue Jan 01, 2019 8:28 pm

San Diego Union-Tribune
Winter is shrinking, Scripps study finds, posing new fire, water risks

Across the mountains of the West, the landscape of winter is changing.

Deep snowpacks that held fast through winter, then melted in a torrent each spring, are instead seeping away earlier in the year. The period of winter weather is shrinking, too, with autumn lasting longer and spring starting earlier.

The findings by Amato Evan, a professor of atmospheric and climate science with Scripps Institution of Oceanography, show changes to Western hydrology that could jeopardize water resources, flood control, fire management and winter recreation.

His results were published this month in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, and presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting in Washington, D.C.

Aerial photos and snow surveys illustrate how levels vary from year to year. But Evan’s study looked not only at how much snow there is, but also how it accumulates and then runs off.

Climate models have predicted the snowpack would diminish earlier in the season and melt more gradually as the planet warms. Evan affirmed those projections through an analysis of data from 1982 through 2017.



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Re: Water Troubles

#330

Post by Addie » Tue Jan 01, 2019 8:37 pm

Mother Jones
Like fruit, vegetables, and almonds? Scientists have bad news.

So far, this winter has brought ample snows to the Sierra Nevada, the spine of mountains that runs along California’s eastern flank. That’s good news for Californians, because the range’s melted snow provides 60 percent of the state’s water supply. Anyone in the United States who likes fruit, vegetables, and nuts should rejoice, too, because water flowing from the Sierra’s streams and rivers is the main irrigation source for farms in the arid Central Valley, which churns out nearly a quarter of the food consumed here.

But the Sierra snowpack has shown an overall declining trend for decades—most dramatically during the great California drought of 2012-2016—and will dwindle further over the next several decades, a growing body of research suggests. In the latest, published in the peer-reviewed Geophysical Research Letters journal, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers lay out what they call a “future of consistent low-to-no snowpack.” In other words, a new normal wherein the robust snowpack developing this year would be an almost unthinkable anomaly.

To get a picture of what water planners can expect in the coming decades, the team focused on the headwaters feeding 10 major reservoirs designed to capture snowmelt from the Sierra each year. Using averages from 1985 to 2005 as a baseline, they applied nine different climate models. They assumed global greenhouse gas emissions would continue rising at present rates —that is, a “business as usual” scenario with no effective global deal to cut greenhouse emissions and no major technological breakthroughs.

The results: By mid-century (2039–2059), the average annual snowpack will fall by 54.4 percent compared to the late-20th century baseline. By the time today’s teens are in their 70s, it will be 79.3 percent beneath the old standard. To analyze massive amounts of water, planners think in acre-feet—the amount needed to submerge an acre of land by one foot. At the end of the last century, the Sierra Nevada captured an average of 8.76 million acre-feet. By mid-century, they project, the average will fall to 4 million acre-feet; and by century’s end, 1.81 million acre-feet.

The Central Valley Project—a federally run network of dams, reservoirs, and canals that waters about a third California’s irrigated farmland and provides water and electricity to millions of urban users, all from snow melt—could become a what economists called a “stranded asset” in such a scenario: a multi-billion dollar public investment that lacks sufficient water to perform its tasks.



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Re: Water Troubles

#331

Post by Tiredretiredlawyer » Sun Jan 13, 2019 11:53 am

What think ye, Fogbow Floridians?

https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states ... nvironment
Florida Gov. DeSantis Signs Order to Fight Algae, Red Tide

DeSantis said he will seek $2.5 billion over the next four years for Everglades restoration and water resources. The order not only touches on algae problems, but rising sea levels and the ongoing battle with Georgia over water diverted for Atlanta's use instead of flowing downstream to Apalachicola Bay. The reduction of fresh water entering the bay has hurt the region's oyster industry.

He didn't say where the money would come from, and his office didn't immediately respond when asked about the funding. Late in the day, DeSantis demanded the resignations of all nine members of the South Florida Water Management District, which oversees the Everglades area. The board in November extended a lease with sugar farmers for land needed for a reservoir that is key to water purification efforts, angering DeSantis.

While critics often said DeSantis' predecessor, U.S. Sen. Rick Scott, ignored science and rising sea levels, DeSantis addressed it on his second full day in office. He is creating an Office of Resiliency tasked with protecting coastal communities and wildlife from sea level rise.


A 19th Amendment Centennial Moment: On July 28, 1919, Arkansas became the 12th state to adopt the 19th Amendment.

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Re: Water Troubles

#332

Post by Volkonski » Sun Jan 13, 2019 1:21 pm

A $3 billion problem: Miami-Dade’s septic tanks are already failing due to sea rise

https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/ ... 32115.html
Miami-Dade has tens of thousands of septic tanks, and a new report reveals most are already malfunctioning — the smelly and unhealthy evidence of which often ends up in people’s yards and homes. It’s a billion-dollar problem that climate change is making worse.

As sea level rise encroaches on South Florida, the Miami-Dade County study shows that thousands more residents may be at risk — and soon. By 2040, 64 percent of county septic tanks (more than 67,000) could have issues every year, affecting not only the people who rely on them for sewage treatment, but the region’s water supply and the health of anyone who wades through floodwaters.

“That’s a huge deal for a developed country in 2019 to have half of the septic tanks not functioning for part of the year,” said Miami Waterkeeper Executive Director Rachel Silverstein. “That is not acceptable.”

:snippity:

Sea level rise is pushing the groundwater even higher, eating up precious space and leaving the once dry dirt soggy. Waste water doesn’t filter like it’s supposed to in soggy soil. In some cases, it comes back out, turning a front yard into a poopy swamp.


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Re: Water Troubles

#333

Post by Addie » Mon Jan 28, 2019 8:20 pm

Politico
Exclusive: Trump EPA won't limit 2 toxic chemicals in drinking water

The Trump administration will not set a drinking water limit for two toxic chemicals that are contaminating millions of Americans' tap water, two sources familiar with the forthcoming decision told POLITICO.

The expected move is yet another sign of the administration's reluctance to aggressively deal with the chemicals, which have been used for decades in products such as Teflon-coated cookware and military firefighting foam and are present in the bloodstreams of an estimated 98 percent of Americans. And it comes less than a year after the White House and the Environmental Protection Agency faced criticism for delaying publication of a health study on the chemicals, which a White House aide had warned could trigger a "public relations nightmare."

EPA's decision means the chemicals will remain unregulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act, according to sources familiar with a still-unreleased draft plan that acting administrator Andrew Wheeler signed off on in late December. That means utilities will face no federal requirements for testing for and removing the chemicals from drinking water supplies, although several states have pursued or are pursuing their own limits. ...

The chemicals, known as PFOA and PFOS, have been linked to kidney and testicular cancer, hypertension and other ailments. Major chemical companies like 3M as well as the Defense Department would face billions of dollars in liability from aggressive efforts to regulate and clean up the chemical, which has contaminated groundwater near hundreds of military bases and chemical plants.



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Re: Water Troubles

#334

Post by Addie » Sat Feb 09, 2019 3:38 pm

NPR
A Water Crisis Is Growing In A Place You'd Least Expect It ...

The crisis is especially acute where you would least expect it – the Great Lakes, the region of the country with the most abundant fresh water.

A nine-month investigation by APM Reports examined the cost of water in six large cities near the Great Lakes – Chicago, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Detroit, Buffalo and Duluth – over the past 10 years and found that rates have risen alarmingly fast. In Chicago, the cost of water for the average family of four nearly tripled between 2007 and 2018. Cleveland's rates more than doubled – to $1,317 per year for an average family of four. And families in Detroit paid an astounding $1,151 annually. By contrast, that same average family living in Phoenix, which pipes in much of its water from 300 miles away and has been called the least-sustainable city in the country, paid about two-thirds less.

Many cities have been forced to raise rates to deal with decrepit infrastructure – leaking, cracking water pipes that in some places date to the 19th century. With the federal government allocating less money for water infrastructure, most cities have foisted the bill on to their customers, especially those who can least afford it.

The APM Reports investigation found that the rising cost of water has hit poor families the hardest; the government-run water utilities in these six cities have issued at least 367,740 shut-off notices in the past decade. And an analysis of shut-off data revealed disproportionately high concentrations of water shut-offs in poorer areas and in majority black and Latino neighborhoods in every city.

Unlike more visible infrastructure problems – such as electrical blackouts, dangerous bridges or clogged highways – wealthier Americans may not even know that water prices have spiked. But for millions struggling to afford water, or living without it, the crisis can be life-altering.



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Re: Water Troubles

#335

Post by Addie » Thu Feb 14, 2019 7:01 am

New Zealand Herald
Floodwater swells Queensland's Flinders River into a 60km-wide 'mega river'

It's a river unlike any in Australia — and a fortnight ago it barely existed.

In northern Queensland, record rain has created an instant "mega river" so immense it can be clearly seen on satellite imagery.

In parts, the Flinders River is now so swollen with floodwater it's expanded to a width of 60 kilometres from bank to sodden bank, news.com.au reports.

On Wednesday, the Bureau of Meteorology said the Flinders "is currently experiencing its most significant flood in at least the last 50 years".
NASA satellite view:




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Re: Water Troubles

#336

Post by RTH10260 » Thu Feb 14, 2019 7:44 pm

Addie wrote:
Thu Feb 14, 2019 7:01 am
New Zealand Herald
Floodwater swells Queensland's Flinders River into a 60km-wide 'mega river'

:snippity: .
NASA satellite view:




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Re: Water Troubles

#337

Post by Foggy » Fri Feb 15, 2019 7:20 am

:shock:


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Re: Water Troubles

#338

Post by Slim Cognito » Fri Feb 15, 2019 7:39 am

Tiredretiredlawyer wrote:
Sun Jan 13, 2019 11:53 am
What think ye, Fogbow Floridians?

https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states ... nvironment
Florida Gov. DeSantis Signs Order to Fight Algae, Red Tide

DeSantis said he will seek $2.5 billion over the next four years for Everglades restoration and water resources. The order not only touches on algae problems, but rising sea levels and the ongoing battle with Georgia over water diverted for Atlanta's use instead of flowing downstream to Apalachicola Bay. The reduction of fresh water entering the bay has hurt the region's oyster industry.

He didn't say where the money would come from, and his office didn't immediately respond when asked about the funding. Late in the day, DeSantis demanded the resignations of all nine members of the South Florida Water Management District, which oversees the Everglades area. The board in November extended a lease with sugar farmers for land needed for a reservoir that is key to water purification efforts, angering DeSantis.

While critics often said DeSantis' predecessor, U.S. Sen. Rick Scott, ignored science and rising sea levels, DeSantis addressed it on his second full day in office. He is creating an Office of Resiliency tasked with protecting coastal communities and wildlife from sea level rise.
Sorry for the late reply. I just read this.

I'm not an expert on the water but a friend, a water captain who makes his living ferrying tourists from island to island, is. He's been very involved with other captains and fishing boats working together to get something done around here. Although not a fan of deSantis, he likes what he's hearing. What remains to be seen is if deSantis follows through.


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Re: Water Troubles

#339

Post by Addie » Wed Feb 20, 2019 8:54 pm

Associated Press
50M gallons of polluted water pours daily from US mine sites

RIMINI, Mont. (AP) — Every day many millions of gallons of water loaded with arsenic, lead and other toxic metals flow from some of the most contaminated mining sites in the U.S. and into surrounding streams and ponds without being treated, The Associated Press has found.

That torrent is poisoning aquatic life and tainting water supplies in Montana, California, Colorado, Oklahoma and at least five other states.

The pollution is a legacy of how the mining industry was allowed to operate in the U.S. for more than a century. Companies that built mines for silver, lead, gold and other “hardrock” minerals could move on once they were no longer profitable, leaving behind tainted water that still leaks out of the mines or is cleaned up at taxpayer expense.

Using data from public records requests and independent researchers, the AP examined 43 mining sites under federal oversight, some containing dozens or even hundreds of individual mines.

The records show that at average flows, more than 50 million gallons (189 million liters) of contaminated wastewater streams daily from the sites. In many cases, it runs untreated into nearby groundwater, rivers and ponds — a roughly 20-million-gallon (76-million-liter) daily dose of pollution that could fill more than 2,000 tanker trucks.



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Re: Water Troubles

#340

Post by Volkonski » Fri Feb 22, 2019 11:10 am


Reed Timmer

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Following Following @ReedTimmerAccu
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NEW: flash flood waters still rising slowly just inches from covering the on-ramp onto I55 north from Saw Mill Rd in Grenada MS @breakingweather @accuweather #mswx


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Re: Water Troubles

#341

Post by Addie » Sat Feb 23, 2019 5:50 pm

Grist
Atlantic City can’t afford to roll the dice on sea-level rise

Atlantic City, the once-proud gambling and resort destination, is treading water. In 2017, it was one of three U.S. cities that experienced the most record flooding from high tides, according to a June report from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

That distinction isn’t just a warning shot, signaling a problem the town can still avoid. A certain amount of sea-level rise is locked in no matter what we do. And as the effects become more and more immediate, cities on the East Coast are reckoning with how to adapt.

Less than 200 miles away, the Maryland capital of Annapolis is in a similarly sinking boat. A recent study published in Science Advances quantifies just how bad sea-level rise can be for the local economy. Stanford University researchers found that eight flood-affected businesses in downtown Annapolis missed out on 3,000 visits in 2017 — putting losses somewhere between $86,000 and $172,000.

It’s easy to imagine sea level rise as a slow creep, threatening to swallow cities whole over many, many years. But the waters aren’t that tranquil. When storms happen, or a high tide washes in, things flood — and the water might not be coming from the shore, tsunami-style. It can surge up from storm drains and gutters, as Nancy McPherson, the manager at the Annapolis Marine Art Gallery, told the Guardian.

“Even though these floods don’t grab media attention the way big storms do, they have a real and growing impact on the health of coastal communities,” said Miyuki Hino, a co-author of the Science Advances study and a Stanford graduate student. “By understanding the impacts of high-tide floods, cities have a stronger evidence base for deciding how to adapt to sea-level rise.”



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Re: Water Troubles

#342

Post by RTH10260 » Sat Feb 23, 2019 6:24 pm

Time to study the Netherlands solution against their low lying country side being inundated too much.
The Netherland's Billion Dollar Sea Wall
Since most of the Netherlands lies close to sea level, it is no surprise that they have a billion dollar sea wall protecting their land.

Interesting Engineering
April, 10th 2016

The Netherlands is renowned for floods, which is no surprise since half of the country lies just one meter above sea level, and over the eighth lying below sea level. The Netherlands has an extensive flood history dating back hundreds of years with hundreds of thousands of deaths resulting from massive storm surges that decimate any land, houses, or people that get in the way. One of the worst surges occurred in Holland, in the year 1530 on November 5th when a massive storm created a surge that demolished the small storm surge barrier, swept away the dams, and ruined the dikes, killing upwards of 100,000 people.

Given the natural landscape, the Dutch government always tried to find solutions that would help location population. They managed to do so by building special canal systems, ditches, windmills, dams and so on. Today, these magnificent constructions make a difference between life and death in numerous areas of the country.

The main problem is that good part of the Netherlands sits below sea-level. Any major fluctuation in the sea depth will cause extensive flooding to a vast amount of land. The Dutch combat this issue by constructing dikes, effectively raising the height of the river ridges to allow greater variations in the river and sea depth (see pictures below). However, high banks cause more water to accumulate, which slowly erodes the dikes or overflows during surges, releasing immense amounts of water over the edge- once again wreaking havoc on the Netherlands. The Dutch utilized massive windmills to pump water out of the channels, directing the water back into the ocean. These solutions lasted for many years, helping disperse surges and keeping mortality rates low. However, the solution was not permanent and the government had to search for something new.


https://interestingengineering.com/neth ... r-sea-wall
also.
Welcome to Delta Works Online

The site, an initiative of the Delta Works Online Foundation, is one of the biggest and most complete online resources of information about the Delta Works and water management in the Netherlands.

The deltaworks are viewable in many ways on our website. Through the use of photographs, animations, audio, video and virtual tours we try to give you a complete picture of the enormous scale of all the different works. The site is ideal as a resource for your thesis, or to show your family and friends (possibly abroad) this small marvel of Dutch Water Engineering.

Apart from informaiton on the North Sea flood of 1953, the building of the deltaworks and water management in the Netherlands, the site also covers related topics. These topics elaborate on the relation between water management, nature and recreation.

Since 2004 we have worked very hard on DeltaWorks Online. Over 40 volunteers, students and professionals have helped with the construction of our own small deltawork. Thanks to their support our current website covers over 1400+ pages illustrated with over 2000+ multimedia items.


http://www.deltawerken.com/788



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Re: Water Troubles

#343

Post by Addie » Mon Mar 04, 2019 4:22 pm

The Guardian
Most US coal plants are contaminating groundwater with toxins, analysis finds

Of 265 US power plants that monitor groundwater, 242 report unsafe levels of at least one pollutant derived from coal ash


Almost every coal-fired power plant in the US is contaminating groundwater with unsafe levels of toxic pollution, according to the first comprehensive analysis of the consequences of coal ash waste disposal.

Of the 265 US power plants that monitor groundwater, 242 have reported unsafe levels of at least one pollutant derived from coal ash, which is the remnants of coal after it is burned for energy. More than half such facilities report unsafe levels of arsenic, a carcinogen linked to multiple types of cancer, with 60% finding elevated lithium, which is associated with neurological damage.

In all, nine out of every 10 coal plants with reportable data have tainted nearby groundwater with at least one coal ash pollutant, with a majority having unsafe levels of at least four different toxins.

“The pollution is basically everywhere you look,” said Abel Russ, attorney at the Environmental Integrity Project (EIP), which compiled the analysis based on reports issued by individual power plants. “The major concern is that this could be a problem for decades or centuries because once the pollutants leach from the coal ash into the water, they are hard to get out.”

The coal plants included in the analysis represent roughly three-quarters of all coal facilities in the US, with the remainder either having shut down their coal ash dumps or been exempted from reporting requirements.



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Re: Water Troubles

#344

Post by Addie » Mon Mar 11, 2019 3:11 pm

Detroit News
Trump budget again slashes aid to Great Lakes cleanup program

Washington — President Donald Trump's latest budget proposes a 5-percent reduction in non-defense spending, including a 90-percent cut for a popular Great Lakes cleanup programthat bipartisan Michigan lawmakers pledged to fight.

Funding for the $300 million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative would be cut by $270 million to $30 million under the budget released Monday — the third year in a row the Trump budget team proposed cuts to the program.

A senior administration official told reporters Monday that regional economic programs "are primarily state and local activities and should be funded as such."

A budget summary provided by the White House says the spending plan provides support for basin-wide monitoring of the watershed, including efforts to track and address harmful algal blooms and invasive species, while supporting "cooperative federalism by building state and local capacity to conduct monitoring."

In previous years, Congress, which controls spending levels, has restored full funding for the Great Lakes program. The White House budget merely reflects the priorities of the Trump administration.



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Re: Water Troubles

#345

Post by Addie » Sat Mar 16, 2019 2:06 pm

New York Mag - Bill de Blasio: My New Plan to Climate-Proof Lower Manhattan



Six years ago, Hurricane Sandy slammed into New York City. The storm put 51 square miles of it under water. Seventeen thousand homes were damaged or destroyed. Forty-four New Yorkers lost their lives.

We don’t debate global warming in New York City. Not anymore. The only question is where to build the barriers to protect us from rising seas and the inevitable next storm, and how fast we can build them.

On Thursday, I am joining a group of climate scientists and local officials to announce we’re filling one of the biggest gaps in our coastal defenses. We’re going to protect Lower Manhattan, which includes the Financial District, home to a half-million jobs, 90,000 residents, and the nexus of almost all our subway lines.

It will be one of the most complex environmental and engineering challenges our city has ever undertaken and it will, literally, alter the shape of the island of Manhattan.



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Re: Water Troubles

#346

Post by Addie » Sun Mar 17, 2019 11:56 am

Lincoln Journal Star
11-foot wall of water: One dam breaks, three counties suffer



From their offices in Lincoln early Thursday, hydrologists with the U.S. Geological Survey were monitoring the final few moments of a stream gauge more than 200 miles away, on the Niobrara River.

It was hinting at something catastrophic.

“We were watching it from here, and it looked like something incredible was happening that we couldn’t believe,” said Jason Lambrecht. “And suddenly, everything went dark.”

The gauge had been ripped away by the wall of water released when the 90-year-old Spencer Dam failed under the pressure of the river, swollen with rain and rapid snowmelt and broken ice. But its last readings allowed Lambrecht to measure the size of the surge.

Earlier, the Niobrara had been running at 5 or 6 feet of gauge height. After it broke through the dam, it measured nearly 17.5 feet. It wasn’t a gradual increase, either.

“It started a really fast rise,” he said. “There was an 11-foot wave that rolled through.”



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Re: Water Troubles

#347

Post by RTH10260 » Sun Mar 17, 2019 12:55 pm




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Re: Water Troubles

#348

Post by RTH10260 » Sun Mar 17, 2019 4:21 pm

From the images it looks to me that there was a massive ice flow that built up behind the dam and created a huge lake. Water must have then spilled over and eroded the earth dam while the gates did crack under the weight of the ice.



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Re: Water Troubles

#349

Post by Azastan » Sun Mar 17, 2019 7:41 pm

Wow.



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Re: Water Troubles

#350

Post by Volkonski » Thu Mar 21, 2019 1:11 pm



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