Oceans & Tides

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Addie
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Oceans & Tides

#1

Post by Addie » Sat Apr 27, 2019 12:32 pm

ucf.edu
U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast Facing High Threat of Sea-Level Rise in Next 10 Years

New research shows 75 percent of the Atlantic Coast from North Carolina to Central Florida will be highly vulnerable to erosion and inundation from rising tides. ...


The new data reflect a 30 percent increase in highly vulnerable areas in the region since 2000, the date of previous projections from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Coastal Vulnerability Index.

The findings come from a study in the The Journal of Wildlife Management, which was led by Betsy von Holle, a biologist at the University of Central Florida.

Some of the coastal species at risk include loggerhead and green sea turtles, threatened species that nest along the shoreline and already face challenges such as an uptick in infectious diseases. According to the study, sea-level rise will increase the risk of erosion in about 50 percent of the nesting areas for those species by the next decade.

“We need to know not only what areas are going to be the most affected by sea-level rise, but also those species most vulnerable to sea-level rise in order to figure out management plans for coastal species,” von Holle says.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#2

Post by Addie » Sat Apr 27, 2019 12:36 pm

University of Melbourne
33-year study shows increasing ocean winds and wave heights

Extreme ocean winds and wave heights are increasing around the globe, with the largest rise occurring in the Southern Ocean, University of Melbourne research shows.

Researchers Ian Young and Agustinus Ribal, from the University’s Department of Infrastructure Engineering, analysed wind speed and wave height measurements taken from 31 different satellites between 1985-2018, consisting of approximately 4 billion observations.

The measurements were compared with more than 80 ocean buoys deployed worldwide, making it the largest and most detailed dataset of its type ever compiled.

The researchers found that extreme winds in the Southern Ocean have increased by 1.5 metres per second, or 8 per cent, over the past 30 years. Extreme waves have increased by 30 centimetres, or 5 per cent, over the same period.

As the world’s oceans become stormier, Professor Young warns this has flow on effects for rising sea levels and infrastructure.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#3

Post by Addie » Sat Apr 27, 2019 5:11 pm

Miami Herald OpEd - Howard Simon
‘It is not alarmist to say that the people of Florida are being slowly poisoned by the water’ ...

But it is past due to focus on the public health crisis.

While more research is needed, evidence points in the same direction:
Blue-green algae are laden with microcystins that are a cause of non-alcoholic liver cancer. The algae blooms also produce BMAA (β-Methylamino-L-alanine), a toxin that is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, ALS and Parkinson’s. Last year, Drs. Paul Cox and James Metcalf of Brain Chemistry Labs reported that microcystin levels in samples from Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie canal were 300 times the level recommended as safe by the United Nations.

BMAA is a documented cause of Alzheimer’s and ALS. The University of Miami Brain Endowment Bank reported that the BMAA toxin is found in the brains of people with neuro-degenerative diseases.

Dr. David Davis, a neuropathologist at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, reported that monkeys fed BMAA developed early symptoms of ALS. Another study, from 2017, documented that monkeys given BMAA developed the amyloid plaque and “tau tangles” that are the symptoms of Alzheimer’s. Last month, Dr. Davis’ team reported that detectable levels of the BMAA toxin were found in the brains of dead dolphins that displayed degenerative damage similar to Alzheimer’s, ALS and Parkinson’s in humans.

High concentrations of BMAA have been found in the seafood in South Florida waters where blue-green algae blooms occur. Ingestion of BMAA contaminated food is known to lead to Alzheimer’s and ALS.

Toxins in blue-green algae are airborne: Dr. Elijah Stommel of Dartmouth reported that people living near bodies of water with heavy blue-green algae blooms had a 15 times greater chance of getting ALS. Research by Prof. Mike Parsons, a Florida Gulf Coast University marine biologist, found airborne cyanobacteria toxins a mile from retention ponds and three miles from the Caloosahatchee River. A study of air filters near bodies of water infected with blue-green algae along the Caloosahatchee River taken during the heavy blooms in 2018 by Dr. Larry Brand of the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Atmospheric and Marine Science is expected soon.
It is not alarmist to say that the people of Florida — especially people who come in contact with the infested waters or breathe the air nearby, and perhaps all of us who consume the fish and shrimp from Florida waters — are being slowly poisoned. Liver cancer, Alzheimer’s and ALS are terminal diseases; the toxins in blue-green algae kill people.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#4

Post by Lani » Sat Apr 27, 2019 7:00 pm

:yikes:
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Re: Oceans & Tides

#5

Post by Addie » Sun Apr 28, 2019 3:46 pm

Science Alert
Almost 200,000 Never-Before-Seen Viruses Were Just Discovered Hidden in Our Oceans

The oceans hide all kinds of secrets and unknowns in the deep – like the 195,728 viruses that scientists just found lurking underwater, during the course of a pole-to-pole expedition carried out to survey marine life. The researchers say the vast majority have never been seen before.

Prior to this, we only definitively knew about 15,000 of these ocean viruses - so this study is a huge deal for our understanding of our planet.

The researchers say the findings can teach us more about everything from the evolution of life on the planet to the potential consequences of climate change.

The research is based on samples collected between 2009 and 2013 by a crew on board the Tara, a vessel that's spent more than a decade on the water investigating the science of the ocean and the clues it can give us to how our world is evolving.

"Viruses are these tiny things that you can't even see, but because they're present in such huge numbers, they really matter," says one of the team, microbiologist Matthew Sullivan from Ohio State University.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#6

Post by Addie » Sat May 04, 2019 10:54 am

Associated Press
New Jersey governor signs law protecting public beach access

BARNEGAT LIGHT, N.J. (AP) — New Jersey’s governor signed a law Friday intended to protect the public’s right to reach the beach in a state where some shore towns have employed a wide variety of tactics to discourage outsiders from sitting on or even walking across their sand.

But not everyone is convinced the new law will actually change that.

The bill signed by Democrat Phil Murphy codifies in law the state’s public trust doctrine, which holds that waterways including the ocean, bays and rivers, are common property kept in trust by the state for the use of all people. It is a legal doctrine that dates back to the Roman Empire.

It has been at the heart of decades of battles between access advocates, government and private property owners in a state where demand for access to the water remains high, but so do physical and legal obstacles.

Some communities have actively worked to discourage outsiders from using their beaches by restricting beach badge sales to residents-only (something that was struck down by the courts); drastically limiting public parking, prohibiting food on the beach, and refusing to provide public restrooms.

Among other things, the law signed Friday requires the doctrine to be applied to coastal development, protection and funding issues.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#7

Post by Addie » Sat May 04, 2019 3:34 pm

NPR
River Town Mayors Nervously Watch Rising Water, Want More Funding For Flood Prevention

Civic leaders along the Mississippi River are bracing for near-record flood levels in the coming days and weeks.

Mayors in Missouri and Illinois say federal programs that aim to prevent flood damage need more funding to adequately support river towns that face evacuation and income loss.

Flooding in Alton is expected to crest next week at 35.2 feet, the fifth-highest flood level on record, according to the National Weather Service. The river at Grafton is expected to reach the fourth-highest flood level on record for the city. River levels at both Illinois towns are expected to exceed levees and rise within 10 feet of historic levels reached during the Great Flood of ’93.

In Grafton on Friday, roads were already closing, people were already evacuating, and water was approaching the city hall, said its mayor, Rick Eberlin.

“We’re basically at wit’s end,” Eberlin said Friday in a conference call with mayors from Iowa, Missouri and Illinois. “We’re totally unprotected. Our entire length of our city is wide open, so we just have to wait and see how much debris gets pushed into our banks.”

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#8

Post by RTH10260 » Sat May 04, 2019 11:05 pm

There is no sensible solution to build higher and higher levies. I believe the people living along the Mississippi need to get ready for the idea to give the river back a part of its flood plains. It will need a system of secondary levies several miles away from the river to contain the flood plains, and levies built around existing settlements. Plus of course spillways to realease exess river water at the high water mark controlled into the flood plains. Farmers in these flood plains will need to adjust to different kinds of crops and plan for regular losses.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#9

Post by Addie » Thu May 09, 2019 8:56 am

St. Paul Pioneer Press
Mississippi River breaks record for longest flood period in St. Paul

When the Mississippi River in St. Paul fell below flood stage last weekend, it swamped the record for the longest period of flooding ever measured in the city.

The 42 consecutive days above flood stage easily surpassed the previous record of 33 days, set in 2001.

According to the National Weather Service, the Mississippi fell below “minor” flood stage late Saturday into early Sunday.

Thanks to heavy late-winter snowfall, the spring melt stoked flooding fears in the upper Mississippi. However, thanks to ideal temperature conditions, the melt was gradual. And little rain fell as the river began its rise. The Mississippi crested in St. Paul at 20.19 feet on March 31. That was still the seventh highest crest on record.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#10

Post by Addie » Mon May 27, 2019 9:19 am

The Guardian
World's rivers 'awash with dangerous levels of antibiotics'

Largest global study finds the drugs in two-thirds of test sites in 72 countries


Hundreds of rivers around the world from the Thames to the Tigris are awash with dangerously high levels of antibiotics, the largest global study on the subject has found.

Antibiotic pollution is one of the key routes by which bacteria are able develop resistance to the life-saving medicines, rendering them ineffective for human use. “A lot of the resistance genes we see in human pathogens originated from environmental bacteria,” said Prof William Gaze, a microbial ecologist at the University of Exeter who studies antimicrobial resistance but was not involved in the study.

The rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global health emergency that could kill 10 million people by 2050, the UN said last month.

The drugs find their way into rivers and soil via human and animal waste and leaks from wastewater treatment plants and drug manufacturing facilities. “It’s quite scary and depressing. We could have large parts of the environment that have got antibiotics at levels high enough to affect resistance,” said Alistair Boxall, an environmental scientist at the University of York, who co-led the study.

The research, presented on Monday at a conference in Helsinki, shows that some of the world’s best-known rivers, including the Thames, are contaminated with antibiotics classified as critically important for the treatment of serious infections. In many cases they were detected at unsafe levels, meaning resistance is much more likely to develop and spread.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#11

Post by Addie » Mon Jun 10, 2019 8:33 pm


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Re: Oceans & Tides

#12

Post by Addie » Mon Jun 10, 2019 9:28 pm

National Geographic
Massive 8,000-mile 'dead zone' could be one of the gulf's largest

Just off the coast of Louisiana and Texas where the Mississippi River empties, the ocean is dying. The cyclical event known as the dead zone occurs every year, but scientists predict that this year's could be one of the largest in recorded history.

Annual spring rains wash the nutrients used in fertilizers and sewage into the Mississippi. That fresh water, less dense than ocean water, sits on top of the ocean, preventing oxygen from mixing through the water column. Eventually those freshwater nutrients can spur a burst of algal growth, which consumes oxygen as the plants decompose.

The resulting patch of low-oxygen waters leads to a condition called hypoxia, where animals in the area suffocate and die. Scientists estimate that this year the dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico will spread for just over or just under 8,000 square miles across the continental shelf situated off the coast.

Choking an ecosystem

“When the oxygen is below two parts per million, any shrimp, crabs, and fish that can swim away, will swim away,” says Louisiana State University ocean ecologist Nancy Rabalais. “The animals in the sediment [that can't swim away] can be close to annihilated.”

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#13

Post by Addie » Fri Jun 21, 2019 11:39 am

The Guardian: Seawalls to protect US against rising oceans could cost $416bn by 2040

Seawalls could cost as much as the initial investment in the interstate highway system, with Florida facing $76bn, report finds

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#14

Post by Foggy » Fri Jun 21, 2019 2:47 pm

Paying for seawalls is dumb, IMHO. The ocean’s power is virtually limitless. If the ocean decides to take out your seawall, it will just hammer that thing until it no longer exists. Look at what the rivers in this great land of ours have done to the levees. Oh wait, what levees? I took my Chevy to the levee and my Chevy got drownded. :(

If you're in an area that you think needs a seawall, save your money by selling the property and moving to higher ground.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#15

Post by ZekeB » Fri Jun 21, 2019 3:40 pm

Foggy wrote:
Fri Jun 21, 2019 2:47 pm
Paying for seawalls is dumb, IMHO. The ocean’s power is virtually limitless. If the ocean decides to take out your seawall, it will just hammer that thing until it no longer exists. Look at what the rivers in this great land of ours have done to the levees. Oh wait, what levees? I took my Chevy to the levee and my Chevy got drownded. :(

If you're in an area that you think needs a seawall, save your money by selling the property and moving to higher ground.
Check out I-29 between Nebraska and Iowa. Much of it is built in the Missouri River floodplain. There are highways, thousands of acres of farm land and cities located in that flood plain. They thought they could build dikes and dams and keep the river within its banks. The interstate highway flooded twice so far this season, requiring expensive repairs to barely make the highway useable again. The farmland is still a big lake. Farm houses are seen in the middle of this lake. One town is still an island. The waters haven't receded enough yet. The temperatures have been below normal all season, causing many farmers to grunt, "what global warming?" Nature is stronger than the largest atom bomb ever conceived, yet some people think they can tame it.
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Re: Oceans & Tides

#16

Post by Somerset » Fri Jun 21, 2019 5:34 pm

Foggy wrote:
Fri Jun 21, 2019 2:47 pm
Paying for seawalls is dumb, IMHO. The ocean’s power is virtually limitless. If the ocean decides to take out your seawall, it will just hammer that thing until it no longer exists. Look at what the rivers in this great land of ours have done to the levees. Oh wait, what levees? I took my Chevy to the levee and my Chevy got drownded. :(

If you're in an area that you think needs a seawall, save your money by selling the property and moving to higher ground.
Don't tell the Dutch about this ;)

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#17

Post by Sam the Centipede » Sat Jun 22, 2019 3:10 am

Somerset wrote:
Fri Jun 21, 2019 5:34 pm
Don't tell the Dutch about this ;)
The Netherlands is an iddy-biddy country with mild climate and small waterways, it can do it.

And if they don't, they can't retreat to higher ground (the Holland Heights? the Brabantian Alps? naaahh...). The Netherlands does have some mountains, even volcanoes, but it is left as an exercise for the reader to work out why these are not a useful refuge for the people of the polders!

It's definitely better to work with nature than against it, wherever possible. Not only is nature powerful, so barriers will fail, but also it can respond to thwarting in undesirable, possibly unanticipated ways, creating new problems. Seawalls tend to exacerbate (or at least modify) longshore drift so beaches appear or disappear.

Many rivers in Europe served as trade routes in medieval times so towns are spotted along their lengths. Often these are rivers which didn't have big boats, just small barges, sometimes hauled upstream by men or horses. People in towns or on farmland naturally wish to prevent flooding so they build better drains or construct barriers – problem solved! No, because now the upstream river must carry more water and the downstream towns and cities (big rivers tend to have the big industrial cities and major ports) find their local river bursting its banks!

The ancient Greek, later Roman, city of Ephesus, in modrrn Turkey was a place of immense wealth (home of the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World). It finally lost its commercial value in late Roman times because its harbor silted up and became unusable: no ships, no trade, no merchants, no wealth. Why so much silt? Because the Romans denuded the hills of trees for lumber. Soil on slopes without trees is less stable than wooded ground and has much reduced capacity for holding back rainfall. So rainwater runs off faster, destabilizing further the ground it runs over, until it pours into the river. The river is now flowing faster with more water carrying more silt, resulting in rapid silt build up when it slows in wider, flatter ateas … where the cities are.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#18

Post by Addie » Mon Jun 24, 2019 10:27 am

Quartz: Scientists have discovered a sea of fresh water under the ocean

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#19

Post by Addie » Sat Jun 29, 2019 8:22 am

Independent
Climate change blamed as huge mounds of rotten seaweed spoil pristine beaches in Mexico

Piles of sargassum, which smells of rotting eggs and turns sea water brown, covers Rivera Maya coast



An infestation of rotting seaweed that is blighting many of Mexico’s pristine white-sand beaches on its Caribbean coast is believed to be the result of climate change. Mounds of sargassum, which smells of rotten eggs and turns clear sea water brown, has washed up on the shores of popular tourist destinations including Cancun, Playa del Carman and Tulum. Mexico has already spent $17m (£13.4m) so far this year in an attempt to clear 500,000 tons of the plant from its coastline, but these efforts are proving futile.

For the past decade, sargassum has been blooming across the Caribbean. Scientists believe this is the result of rising ocean temperatures and agricultural fertilisers and untreated sewage flowing into the Caribbean Sea.

Chuanmin Hu, a professor of oceanography at South Florida University’s College of Marine Science, said: “Because of global climate change we may have increased upwelling, increased air deposition, or increased nutrient source from rivers, so all three may have increased the recent large amounts of sargassum.” ...

Last month, the Quintana Roo government declared a state of emergency over the issue, describing it as an “imminent natural disaster”. But Mexico’s president, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, said the seaweed was a “minor issue” at a press conference in Cancun on Monday. He said that he was not worried about it causing major damage to the tourist-dependent region.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#20

Post by Sam the Centipede » Sat Jun 29, 2019 5:05 pm

Yuk! My uninformed guess is that nutrient enrichment from fertilizers and untreated sewage is the major cause and the rise in seawater temperature has kicked it over the threshold, a butterfly effect.

There are many countries where much more effort is required to prevent both agrichemicals and human waste getting into waterways. Often it's as simple as adjust ploughing direction and leaving earth banks or areas with scrubby plants so rainwater does not run quickly off the land into the nearest watercourse. And such simple measures also vastly reduce the loss of topsoil from fields, which is one of those hidden environmental disasters which can come back to bite us on the backside.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#21

Post by pipistrelle » Sat Jun 29, 2019 5:15 pm

Sam the Centipede wrote:
Sat Jun 29, 2019 5:05 pm
And such simple measures also vastly reduce the loss of topsoil from fields, which is one of those hidden environmental disasters which can come back to bite us on the backside.
This isn't even that hidden. I recently read a very dated earth science book in which this is discussed as a big concern.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#22

Post by Chilidog » Sat Jun 29, 2019 5:51 pm

The Soil Conservation Service was established in 1935 and is still around.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#23

Post by Addie » Sun Jun 30, 2019 5:06 am

I'm wondering if this sick sea condition could have something to do with the tourists in the Dominican Republic sickening and dying? Also too, earlier in this thread there's a story that speculates people living in Florida may be being poisoned by the water in the Gulf, even just by breathing in the air. Some scary shit here.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#24

Post by Addie » Wed Jul 03, 2019 7:20 am

New Scientist - Adam Vaughan
Antarctic sea ice is declining dramatically and we don’t know why



Decades of expanding sea ice in Antarctica have been wiped out by three years of sudden and dramatic declines, leaving scientist puzzled as to why the region has flipped so abruptly.

A new satellite analysis reveals that between 2014 and 2017 sea ice extent in the southern hemisphere suffered unprecedented annual decreases, leaving the area covered by sea ice at its lowest point in 40 years. The declines were so big that they outstripped the losses in the fast-melting Arctic over the same period. “It’s very surprising. We just haven’t seen decreases like that in either hemisphere,” says Claire Parkinson at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, who undertook the analysis.

However, researchers cautioned against pinning the changes on climate change and said it was too early to say if the shrinking is the start of a long-term trend or a blip.

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Re: Oceans & Tides

#25

Post by Addie » Fri Jul 05, 2019 11:18 am

CNN
Record-breaking seaweed bloom stretches from West Africa to Mexico

(CNN) A record-breaking mass of smelly seaweed stretching from West Africa to the Gulf of Mexico has been identified using satellite imagery.
The seaweed bloom, called the great Atlantic Sargassum belt, is the largest ever of its kind, according to a new study.

Researchers at the University of Southern Florida used satellite imagery to determine that the giant floating mass of seaweed is a whopping 8,850 kilometers (5,000 miles) long. It weighs an estimated 20 million metric tons, or the equivalent of 1.6 million double-decker buses. ...

"There's a huge amount of Sargassum in a place where it's never been seen before," said Mengqiu Wang, co-author of the study, which was published in the journal Science.

Wang said the seaweed was of "great ecological value" to marine life such as fish, crabs, shrimps and turtles that use it as a habitat or food source.

But excesses of Sargassum like the recent explosion cause some problems for marine life, as dead Sargassum sinks to the ocean floor and can "smother corals and seagrasses", according to the university's press release.

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